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Kali Charan Sabat, Hematite reduction by hydrogen plasma: Where are we now?, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-022-2467-7
Cite this article as:
Kali Charan Sabat, Hematite reduction by hydrogen plasma: Where are we now?, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-022-2467-7
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特约综述

氢等离子体还原赤铁矿:我们现在在哪里?

  • 通讯作者:

    Kali Charan Sabat    E-mail: kcsabat@gmail.com

  • 目前,铁是通过碳热还原从赤铁矿等矿石中提取的。提取过程包括几个需要大型设备和大量财务投资的单元步骤/过程。此外,提取过程会产生大量有害的二氧化碳 (CO2)。碳热还原的替代方法是氢等离子体(hydrogen plasma, HP)的还原。 HP 主要由激发态原子分子的物质组成,它们通过提供热力学和动力学优势促进赤铁矿的还原,即使在低温下也是如此。除了这些优点之外,HP 还原赤铁矿还可以产生水,这对环境是有益的。本报告回顾了HP还原赤铁矿的理论和实践。此外,还研究了通过 HP 还原固态和液态赤铁矿的现有技术。 通过HP在线还原赤铁矿已被确定为碳热还原的潜在有希望的替代方案。然而,在氢等离子在线还原仍然受到热HP中温度过高和非热HP中相当大的真空成本等问题的困扰。这些问题可以通过使用显著偏离局部热力学平衡的非热常压 HP来克服。
  • Invited Review

    Hematite reduction by hydrogen plasma: Where are we now?

    + Author Affiliations
    • Currently, iron is extracted from ores such as hematite by carbothermic reduction. The extraction process includes several unit steps/processes that require large-scale equipment and significant financial investments. Additionally, the extraction process produces a substantial amount of harmful carbon dioxide (CO2). Alternative to carbothermic reduction is the reduction by hydrogen plasma (HP). HP is mainly composed of exciting species that facilitate hematite reduction by providing thermodynamic and kinetic advantages, even at low temperatures. In addition to these advantages, hematite reduction by HP produces water, which is environmentally beneficial. This report reviews the theory and practice of hematite reduction by HP. Also, the present state of the art in solid-state and liquid-state hematite reduction by HP has been examined. The in-flight hematite reduction by HP has been identified as a potentially promising alternative to carbothermic reduction. However, the in-flight reduction is still plagued with problems such as excessively high temperatures in thermal HP and considerable vacuum costs in non-thermal HP. These problems can be overcome by using non-thermal atmospheric HP that deviates significantly from local thermodynamic equilibrium.
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