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Interface microstructure and formation mechanism of ultrasonic spot welding for Al-Ti dissimilar metals

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  • Received: 3 January 2020Revised: 17 March 2020Accepted: 18 March 2020Available online: 20 March 2020
  • The AA6061 Al and commercial pure Ti were welded by ultrasonic spot welding (USW). The focus of this investigation is the interface microstructure and joint formation. The Al-Ti USW joints were welded at the welding energy of 1100 J~ 3200 J. The joint appearance and interface microstructure were observed mainly by Optical microscope (OM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) The results indicated that good joint only can be achieved with proper welding energy of 2150 J. No significant intermetallic compound (IMC) was found under all conditions. The high energy barriers of Al-Ti and difficulties in diffusion were the main reasons for the absence of IMC according to kinetic analysis. The heat input is crucial for the material plastic flow and bonding area which plays an important role in the joint formation.
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Interface microstructure and formation mechanism of ultrasonic spot welding for Al-Ti dissimilar metals

  • Corresponding author:

    Hong-Bo Xu    E-mail: xuhongbo@hit.edu.cn

  • 1. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
  • 2. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai), Weihai 264209, China

Abstract: The AA6061 Al and commercial pure Ti were welded by ultrasonic spot welding (USW). The focus of this investigation is the interface microstructure and joint formation. The Al-Ti USW joints were welded at the welding energy of 1100 J~ 3200 J. The joint appearance and interface microstructure were observed mainly by Optical microscope (OM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) The results indicated that good joint only can be achieved with proper welding energy of 2150 J. No significant intermetallic compound (IMC) was found under all conditions. The high energy barriers of Al-Ti and difficulties in diffusion were the main reasons for the absence of IMC according to kinetic analysis. The heat input is crucial for the material plastic flow and bonding area which plays an important role in the joint formation.

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