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A numerical study of stress distribution and fatigue behavior in terms of the effect of voids adjacent to inclusions was conducted with finite element modeling simulations under different assumptions. Fatigue mechanisms were also analyzed accordingly. The results showed that the effects of inclusions on fatigue life will distinctly decrease if the mechanical properties are close to those of the steel matrix. For the inclusions, which are tightly bonded with the steel matrix, when the Young’s modulus is larger than that of the steel matrix, the stress will concentrate inside the inclusion; otherwise, the stress will concentrate in the steel matrix. If voids exist on the interface between inclusions and the steel matrix, their effects on the fatigue process differ with their positions relative to the inclusions. The void on one side of an inclusion perpendicular to the fatigue loading direction will aggravate the effect of inclusions on fatigue behavior and lead to a sharp stress concentration. The void on the top of inclusion along the fatigue loading direction will accelerate the debonding between the inclusion and steel matrix.
Selective laser melting (SLM) technology plays an important role in the preparation of porous titanium (Ti) implants with complex structures and precise sizes. Unfortunately, the processing characteristics of this technology, which include rapid melting and solidification, lead to products with high residual stress. Herein, an in situ method was developed to restrain the residual stress and improve the mechanical strength of porous Ti alloys during laser additive manufacturing. In brief, porous Ti6Al4V was prepared by an SLM three-dimensional (3D) printer equipped with a double laser system that could rescan each layer immediately after solidification of the molten powder, thus reducing the temperature gradient and avoiding rapid melting and cooling. Results indicated that double scanning can provide stronger bonding conditions for the honeycomb structure and improve the yield strength and elastic modulus of the alloy. Rescanning with an energy density of 75% resulted in 33.5%–38.0% reductions in residual stress. The porosities of double-scanned specimens were 2%–4% lower than those of single-scanned specimens, and the differences noted increased with increasing sheet thickness. The rescanning laser power should be reduced during the preparation of porous Ti with thick cell walls to ensure dimensional accuracy.
The hot ductility of an Fe–0.3C–9Mn–2Al medium Mn steel was investigated using a Gleeble3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. Hot tensile tests were conducted at different temperatures (600–1300°C) under a constant strain rate of 4 × 10−3 s−1. The fracture behavior and mechanism of hot ductility evolution were discussed. Results showed that the hot ductility decreased as the temperature was decreased from 1000°C. The reduction of area (RA) decreased rapidly in the specimens tested below 700°C, whereas that in the specimen tested at 650°C was lower than 65%. Mixed brittle–ductile fracture feature is reflected by the coexistence of cleavage step, intergranular facet, and dimple at the surface. The fracture belonged to ductile failure in the specimens tested between 720–1000°C. Large and deep dimples could delay crack propagation. The change in average width of the dimples was in positive proportion with the change in RA. The wide austenite–ferrite intercritical temperature range was crucial for the hot ductility of medium Mn steel. The formation of ferrite film on austenite grain boundaries led to strain concentration. Yield point elongation occurred at the austenite–ferrite intercritical temperature range during the hot tensile test.
We successfully constructed TiO2-pillared multilayer graphene nanocomposites (T-MLGs) via a facile method as follows: dodecanediamine pre-pillaring, ion exchange (Ti4+ pillaring), and interlayer in-situ formation of TiO2 by hydrothermal method. TiO2 nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on the graphene interlayer. The special structure combined the advantages of graphene and TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, T-MLGs with 64.3wt% TiO2 showed the optimum photodegradation rate and adsorption capabilities toward ciprofloxacin. The photodegradation rate of T-MLGs with 64.3wt% TiO2 was 78% under light-emitting diode light irradiation for 150 min. Meanwhile, the pseudo-first-order rate constant of T-MLGs with 64.3wt% TiO2 was 3.89 times than that of pristine TiO2. The composites also exhibited high stability and reusability after five consecutive photocatalytic tests. This work provides a facile method to synthesize semiconductor-pillared graphene nanocomposites by replacing TiO2 nanoparticles with other nanoparticles and a feasible means for sustainable utilization of photocatalysts in wastewater control.
The trouble-free and efficient operation of paste thickeners requires an optimal design and the cooperation of each component. When underflow discharging is suspended, alleviating the vast torque that the remaining solids within the thickeners may place on rakes mainly lies in the circulation unit. The mechanism of this unit was analyzed, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the changes in underflow solid content and yield stress. The key parameters of the circulation unit, namely, the height and flow rate, were varied to test its performance in the experiments with a self-designed laboratorial thickening system. Results show that the circulation unit is valid in reducing underflow solid fraction and yield stress to a reasonable extent, and the model could be used to describe its efficiency at different heights and flow rates. A suitable design and application of the circulation unit contributes to a cost-effective operation of paste thickeners.
Nano-sized silicon carbide (SiC: 0wt%, 1wt%, 2wt%, 4wt%, and 8wt%) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix nanocomposites were manufactured, pressed, and sintered at 775 and 875°C in an argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution. The density, thermal expansion, mechanical, and electrical properties were studied. XRD analyses showed that with increasing SiC content, the microstrain and dislocation density increased, while the crystal size decreased. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the nanocomposites was less than that of the Cu matrix. The improvement in the CTE with increasing sintering temperature may be because of densification of the microstructure. Moreover, the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites showed noticeable enhancements with the addition of SiC and sintering temperatures, where the microhardness and apparent strengthening efficiency of nanocomposites containing 8wt% SiC and sintered at 875°C were 958.7 MPa and 1.07 vol%−1, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the sample slightly decreased with additional SiC and increased with sintering temperature. The prepared Cu/SiC nanocomposites possessed good electrical conductivity, high thermal stability, and excellent mechanical properties.
We report the electrochemical performance of Ni(OH)2 on a gas diffusion layer (GDL). The Ni(OH)2 working electrode was successfully prepared via a simple method, and its electrochemical performance in 1 M NaOH electrolyte was investigated. The electrochemical results showed that the Ni(OH)2/GDL provided the maximum specific capacitance value (418.11 F·g−1) at 1 A·g−1. Furthermore, the Ni(OH)2 electrode delivered a high specific energy of 17.25 Wh·kg−1 at a specific power of 272.5 W·kg−1 and retained about 81% of the capacitance after 1000 cycles of galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) measurements. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the occurrence of sodium deposition after long-time cycling, which caused the reduction in the specific capacitance. This study results suggest that the light-weight GDL, which can help overcome the problem of the oxide layer on metal–foam substrates, is a promising current collector to be used with Ni-based electroactive materials for energy storage applications.
We investigated the effect of nanosized NbC precipitates on hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) of high-strength low-alloy steel by conducting slow-strain-rate tensile tests (SSRT) and performing continuous hydrogen charging and fracture analysis. The results reveal that the HIC resistance of Nb-bearing steel is obviously superior to that of Nb-free steel, with the fractured Nb-bearing steel in the SSRT exhibiting a smaller ratio of elongation reduction (Iδ). However, as the hydrogen traps induced by NbC precipitates approach hydrogen saturation, the effect of the precipitates on the HIC resistance attenuate. We speculate that the highly dispersed nanosized NbC precipitates act as irreversible hydrogen traps that hinder the accumulation of hydrogen at potential crack nucleation sites. In addition, much like Nb-free steel, the Nb-bearing steel exhibits both H-solution strengthening and the resistance to HIC.
The present work employed the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis techniques to identify the microstructural evolution and mechanical and abrasive behavior of high carbon steel during quenching-partitioning treatment with an aim to enhance the toughness and wear resistance of high carbon steel. Results showed that, with the increase in partitioning temperature from 250 to 400°C, the amount of retained austenite (RA) decreased resulting from the carbide precipitation effect after longer partitioning times. Moreover, the stability of RA generally increased because of the enhanced degree of carbon enrichment in RA. Given the factors affecting the toughness of high carbon steel, the stability of RA associated with size, carbon content, and morphology plays a significant role in determining the toughness of high carbon steel. The analysis of the wear resistance of samples with different mechanical properties shows that hardness is the primary factor affecting the wear resistance of high carbon steel, and the toughness is the secondary one.
Evaluating the recyclability of powders in additive manufacturing has been a long-term challenge. In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a nickel-based superalloy fabricated by laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) using recycled powders were investigated. Re-melted powder surfaces, satellite particles, and deformed powders were found in the recycled powders, combined with a high-oxygen-content surface layer. The increasing oxygen content led to the formation of high-density oxide inclusions; moreover, printing-induced cracks widely occurred and mainly formed along the grain boundaries in the as-built LPBF nickel-based superalloys fabricated using recycled powders. A little change in the Si or Mn content did not increase the hot cracking susceptibility (HCS) of the printed parts. The changing aspect ratio and the surface damage of the recycled powders might contribute to increasing the crack density. Moreover, the configuration of cracks in the as-built parts led to anisotropic mechanical properties, mainly resulting in extremely low ductility vertical to the building direction, and the cracks mainly propagated along the cellular boundary owing to the existence of a brittle precipitation phase.
To probe the coupling effect of the electron and Li ion conductivities in Ni-rich layered materials (LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA), lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) nanofiber and carbon-coated LLTO fiber (LLTO@C) materials were introduced to polyvinylidene difluoride in a cathode. The enhancement of the conductivity was indicated by the suppressed impedance and polarization. At 1 and 5 C, the cathodes with coupling conductive paths had a more stable cycling performance. The coupling mechanism was analyzed based on the chemical state and structure evolution of NCA after cycling for 200 cycles at 5 C. In the pristine cathode, the propagation of lattice damaged regions, which consist of high-density edge-dislocation walls, destroyed the bulk integrity of NCA. In addition, the formation of a rock-salt phase on the surface of NCA caused a capacity loss. In contrast, in the LLTO@C modified cathode, although the formation of dislocation-driven atomic lattice broken regions and cation mixing occurred, they were limited to a scale of several atoms, which retarded the generation of the rock-salt phase and resulted in a pre-eminent capacity retention. Only NiO phase “pitting” occurred. A mechanism based on the synergistic transport of Li ions and electrons was proposed.
Thermomechanical cyclic quenching and tempering (TMCT) can strengthen steels through a grain size reduction mechanism. The effect of TMCT on microstructure, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of AISI 1345 steel was investigated. Steel samples heated to 1050°C, rolled, quenched to room temperature, and subjected to various cyclic quenching and tempering heat treatments were named TMCT-1, TMCT-2, and TMCT-3 samples, respectively. Microstructure analysis revealed that microstructures of all the treated samples contained packets and blocks of well-refined lath-shaped martensite and retained austenite phases with varying grain sizes (2.8–7.9 μm). Among all the tested samples, TMCT-3 sample offered an optimum combination of properties by showing an improvement of 40% in tensile strength and reduced 34% elongation compared with the non-treated sample. Nanoindentation results were in good agreement with mechanical tests as the TMCT-3 sample exhibited a 51% improvement in indentation hardness with almost identical reduced elastic modulus compared with the non-treated sample. The electrochemical properties were analyzed in 0.1 M NaHCO3 solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As a result of TMCT, the minimum corrosion rate was 0.272 mm/a, which was twenty times less than that of the non-treated sample. The impedance results showed the barrier film mechanism, which was confirmed by the polarization results as the current density decreased.
Steel matrix composites (SMCs) reinforced with WC particles were fabricated via selective laser melting (SLM) by employing various laser scan strategies. A detailed relationship between the SLM strategies, defect formation, microstructural evolution, and mechanical properties of SMCs was established. The laser scan strategies can be manipulated to deliberately alter the thermal history of SMC during SLM processing. Particularly, the involved thermal cycling, which encompassed multiple layers, strongly affected the processing quality of SMCs. S-shaped scan sequence combined with interlayer offset and orthogonal stagger mode can effectively eliminate the metallurgical defects and retained austenite within the produced SMCs. However, due to large thermal stress, microcracks that were perpendicular to the building direction formed within the SMCs. By employing the checkerboard filling (CBF) hatching mode, the thermal stress arising during SLM can be significantly reduced, thus preventing the evolution of interlayer microcracks. The compressive properties of fabricated SMCs can be tailored at a high compressive strength (~3031.5 MPa) and fracture strain (~24.8%) by adopting the CBF hatching mode combined with the optimized scan sequence and stagger mode. This study demonstrates great feasibility in tuning the mechanical properties of SLM-fabricated SMCs without varying the set energy input, e.g., laser power and scanning speed.
In order to remediate heavy metal ions from waste water, Al2O3–SiO2 composite aerogels are prepared via a sol–gel and an organic solvent sublimation drying method. Various characterisation techniques have been employed including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy-dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) N2 adsoprtion isotherm, and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). XRD and FTIR suggest that the aerogels are composed of mainly Al2O3 and minor SiO2. They have a high specific surface area (827.544 m2/g) and high porosity (86.0%) with a pore diameter of ~20 nm. Their microstructures show that the distribution of Al, Si, and O is homogeneous. The aerogels can remove ~99% Cu2+ within ~40 min and then reach the equilibrium uptake (~69 mg/g). Preliminary calculations show that the Cu2+ uptake by the aerogels follows pseudo second-order kinetics where chemical sorption may take effect owing largely to the high surface area, high porosity, and abundant functional groups, such as Al–OH and Si–OH, in the aerogel network. The prepared aerogels may serve as efficient absorbents for Cu2+ removal.
Four types of meager and meager-lean coal and one type of high-quality anthracite were selected based on the safety requirements for blast furnace coal injection and domestic coal quality to conduct microstructure and component analyses. The analyses of the organic and inorganic macerals and the chemical compositions of the selected coal samples indicate that the four types of meager and meager-lean coal have low volatilization, low ash content, and low sulfur content; these qualities are suitable for blast furnace injection. Grindability test was conducted on the four types of meager and meager-lean coal and the anthracite mixed coal samples. Results indicate that the mixture of meager and meager-lean coal and anthracite is beneficial to improve the grindability of pulverized coal. The explosive tests reveal that the selected coal samples are non-explosive or weakly explosive. When the proportion of meager and meager-lean coal is less than 40wt%, the mixed coal powder would not explode during the blowing process. The minimum ignition temperature test determines that the minimum ignition temperatures of the four types of meager and meager-lean coal and anthracite are 326, 313, 310, 315, and 393°C, respectively. This study provides a guiding research idea for the safety of meager and meager-lean coal used in blast furnace injection.
This study compared the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of AA6061-T6 joints produced using friction stir welding (FSW), friction stir vibration welding (FSVW), and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). FSVW is a modified version of FSW wherein the joining specimens are vibrated normal to the welding line during FSW. The results indicated that the weld region grains for FSVW and FSW were equiaxed and were smaller than the grains for TIG. In addition, the weld region grains for FSVW were finer compared with those for FSW. Results also showed that the strength, hardness, and toughness values of the joints produced by FSVW were higher than those of the other joints produced by FSW and TIG. The vibration during FSW enhanced dynamic recrystallization, which led to the development of finer grains. The weld efficiency of FSVW was approximately 81%, whereas those of FSW and TIG were approximately 74% and 67%, respectively.
Cu–Nb microcomposite wire was successfully prepared by a groove rolling process. The effects of groove rolling on the diffraction peaks, microstructure, and properties of the Cu–Nb microcomposite were investigated and the microstructure evolutions and strengthening mechanism were discussed. The tensile strength of the Cu–Nb microcomposite wire with a diameter of 2.02 mm was greater than 1 GPa, and its conductivity reached 68% of the International Annealed Copper Standard, demonstrating the Cu–Nb microcomposite wire with high tensile strength and high conductivity after groove rolling. The results show that an appropriate groove rolling method can improve the performance of the Cu–Nb microcomposite wire.
Manganese was leached from a low-grade manganese ore (LGMO) using banana peel as the reductant in a dilute sulfuric acid medium. The effects of banana peel amount, H2SO4 concentration, reaction temperature, and time on Mn leaching from the complex LGMO were studied. A leaching efficiency of ~98% was achieved at a leaching time of 2 h, banana peel amount of 4 g, leaching temperature of 120°C, manganese ore amount of 5 g, and sulfuric acid concentration of 15vol%. The phase, microstructural, and chemical analyses of LGMO samples before and after the leaching process confirmed the successful leaching of manganese. Furthermore, the leaching process followed the shrinking core model and the leaching rate was controlled by a surface chemical reaction (1 − (1 − x)1/3 = kt) mechanism with an apparent activation energy of 40.19 kJ·mol−1.
The effects of picosecond Nd:YAG laser irradiation on chemical and morphological surface characteristics of the commercially pure titanium and Ti–13Nb–13Zr alloy in air and argon atmospheres were studied under different laser output energy values. During the interaction of laser irradiation with the investigated materials, a part of the energy was absorbed on the target surface, influencing surface modifications. Laser beam interaction with the target surface resulted in various morphological alterations, resulting in crater formation and the presence of microcracks and hydrodynamic structures. Moreover, different chemical changes were induced on the target materials’ surfaces, resulting in the titanium oxide formation in the irradiation-affected area and consequently increasing the irradiation energy absorption. Given the high energy absorption at the site of interaction, the dimensions of the surface damaged area increased. Consequently, surface roughness increased. The appearance of surface oxides also led to the increased material hardness in the surface-modified area. Observed chemical and morphological changes were pronounced after laser irradiation of the Ti–13Nb–13Zr alloy surface.
The presence of silver ions (Ag(I)) in wastewater has a detrimental effect on living organisms. Removal of soluble silver, especially at low concentrations, is challenging. This paper presents the use of β-MnO2 particles as a photocatalyst to remove Ag(I) ions selectively from aqueous solution at various pH levels. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) were employed to determine the removal efficiency and to characterize the deposition of silver onto the surface of β-MnO2 particles. The optimum pH for the removal of Ag(I) ions was at pH 4 with 99% removal efficiency under 1 h of visible light irradiation. This phenomenon can be attributed to the electrostatic attraction between β-MnO2 particles and Ag(I) ions as well as the suppression of electron–hole recombination in the presence of H+ ions.
The effect of cold rolling and post-rolling heat treatment on the microstructural and electrochemical properties of the 316L stainless steel was investigated. Two-pass and four-pass cold-rolled stainless steel specimens were heat-treated by annealing at 900°C followed by quenching in water. During the cold rolling, the microstructure of the as-received specimen transformed from austenite to strain-induced α′-martensite due to significant plastic deformation that also resulted in significant grain elongation (i.e., ~33% and 223% increases in the grain elongation after two and four rolling passes, respectively). The hardness of the heat-treated as-received specimen decreased from HV 190 to 146 due to the recovery and recrystallization of the austenite grain structure. The cyclic polarization scans of the as-rolled and heat-treated specimens were obtained in 0.9wt% NaCl solution. The pitting potential of the four-pass rolled specimen was significantly increased from 322.3 to 930.5 mV after post-rolling heat treatment. The beneficial effect of the heat treatment process was evident from ~10-times-lower corrosion current density and two-orders-of-magnitude-lower passive current density of the heat-treated specimens compared with those of the as-rolled specimens. Similarly, appreciably lower corrosion rate (3.302 × 10−4 mm/a) and higher pitting resistance (1115.5 mV) were exhibited by the post-rolled heat-treated specimens compared with the as-rolled 316L stainless steel specimens.
The research aims to provide an alternative to austempering treatment of ductile cast iron with a simple and cost-effective heat-treatment process. This goal was accomplished by applying a simple one-step spheroidization heat treatment to the as-cast ductile iron, which would normally possess a coarse pearlitic microstructure to a significant extent. Spheroidization experiments involving isothermal holding below the lower critical temperature (A1) were conducted followed by standard mechanical testing and microstructural characterization for an experimental ductile iron. After improving the spheroidization holding time at a given temperature, the work shows that the ductility and toughness of an as-cast ductile iron can be improved by 90% and 40%, respectively, at the cost of reducing the tensile strength by 8%. Controlled discretization of the continuous cementite network in pearlitic matrix of the ductile iron is deemed responsible for the improved properties. The work also shows that prolonged holding time during spheroidization heat treatment leads to degradation of mechanical properties due to the inhomogenous microstructure formation caused by heterogeneous decomposition and cementite clustering in the material. The main outcome of this work is the demonstration of ductile cast iron’s necking behavior due to spheroidization heat treatment.
Natural magnetite formed by the isomorphism substitutions of transition metals, including Fe, Ti, Co, etc., was activated by mechanical grinding followed by H2 reduction. The temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and temperature-programmed surface reaction of carbon dioxide (CO2-TPSR) were carried out to investigate the processes of oxygen loss and CO2 reduction. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the stability of spinel phases and oxygen-deficient degree significantly increased after natural magnetite was mechanically milled and reduced in H2 atmosphere. Meanwhile, the activity and selectivity of CO2 reduction into carbon were enhanced. The deposited carbon on the activated natural magnetite was confirmed as amorphous. The amount of carbon after CO2 reduction at 300°C for 90 min over the activated natural magnetite was 2.87wt% higher than that over the natural magnetite.
A new method for separating and recovering tin from a low-grade tin middling with high Si content and low Fe content by roasting with anthracite coal was researched by studying the reaction mechanism and performing an industrial test, in which the Sn was sulfurized into SnS(g) and then collected using a dust collector. The Fe–Sn alloy may be formed at roasting temperatures above 950°C, and like the roasting temperature increases, the Sn content and Sn activity in this Fe–Sn alloy decrease. Also, more FeS can be formed at higher temperatures and then the formation of FeO–FeS with a low melting point is promoted, which results in more serious sintering of this low-grade tin middling. And from the thermodynamics and kinetics points of view, the volatilization of the Sn decreases at extremely high roasting temperatures. The results of the industrial test carried out in a coal-fired rotary kiln show that the Sn volatilization rate reaches 89.7% and the Sn is concentrated in the collected dust at a high level, indicating that the Sn can be effectively extracted and recovered from the low-grade tin middling with a high Si content and low Fe content through a reduction–sulfurization roasting process.
The effect of Cr/Mn segregation on the abnormal banded structure of high carbon bearing steel was studied by reheating and hot rolling. With the use of an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and electron probe microanalyzer, the segregation characteristics of alloying elements in cast billet and their relationship with hot-rolled plate banded structure were revealed. The formation causes of an abnormal banded structure and the elimination methods were analyzed. Results indicate the serious positive segregation of C, Cr, and Mn alloy elements in the billet. Even distribution of Cr/Mn elements could not be achieved after 10 h of heat preservation at 1200°C, and the spacing of the element aggregation area increased, but the segregation index of alloy elements decreased. Obvious alloying element segregation characteristics are present in the banded structure of the hot-rolled plate. This distinct white band is composed of martensitic phases. The formation of this abnormal pearlite–martensite banded structure is due to the interaction between the undercooled austenite transformation behavior of hot-rolled metal and the segregation of its alloying elements. Under the air cooling after rolling, controlling the segregation index of alloy elements can reduce or eliminate the abnormal banded structure.
Zinc acetate is used as a raw material to synthesize the desired ZnO in hot solvent by controlling the amount of citric acid (CA) added. Notably, the amount of CA added has a significant relationship with the control of the morphology of ZnO. Spherical ZnO wrapped in nanosheets is synthesized through the secondary crystallization of Zn2+. The optical properties of the ZnO sample are tested through the degradation of organic pollutants. Notably, the photocatalytic properties of ZnO vary with the different amounts of CA added. Exposure of the active crystal face increases the photocatalytic activity of ZnO. In addition, the number of defects on the surface of the ZnO sample increases because of its large specific surface area, thus changing the bandgap of ZnO. Therefore, the resulting sample can respond under visible light.
To evaluate the feasibility of recovering Pb and Zn sulfides and Ag-containing minerals from Zn leaching residue by the process of reduction roasting followed by flotation, the reaction behaviors of Pb and Zn sulfates during this process were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that the transformation ratios of PbSO4 and ZnSO4 could reach 65.51% and 52.12%, respectively, after reduction roasting, and the introduction of a sulfidation agent could improve the transformation ratios of these sulfates. scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) revealed that temperature obviously affects the particle size, crystal growth, and morphology of the artificial Pb and Zn sulfide minerals. Particle size analysis demonstrated that the particle size of the materials increases after roasting. Flotation tests revealed that a flotation concentrate composed of 12.01wt% Pb, 27.78wt% Zn, and 6.975 × 10−2wt% Ag with recoveries of 60.54%, 29.24%, and 57.64%, respectively, could be obtained after roasting.
A high-voltage pulsed discharge (HVPD) pretreatment was used to strengthen the leaching effect of Carlin-type gold ore containing arsenic. Optimal results of the pretreatment experiments were obtained at the following operating conditions: a spherical gap spacing of 20 mm, pulse number of 100, and voltage of 30 kV. The leaching rate of gold was increased by 15.65% via the HVPD pretreatment. The mass fraction of?0.5+0.35 mm and?0.35+0.1 mm was increased by 10.97% and 6.83% compared to the untreated samples, respectively, and the Au grade of?0.1 mm was increased by 22.84%. However, the superiority of the HVPD pretreatment would be weakened by prolonged grinding time. Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the pretreated products presented as a melting state and then condensation, accompanying by some pore formation. More micro-cracks were generated at the interface of the ore and the original crack were expended via pulsed discharge pretreatment, with the contact area between the leaching reagent and ore increased, the leaching reaction rate enhanced and the leaching effect strengthened.
Certain inclusions in high-strength 60Si2Mn–Cr spring steel result in poor resistance to localized corrosion. In this work, to study the effect of inclusions on the localized corrosion behavior of spring steel, accelerated corrosion tests were performed by immersing spring steel in 3wt% FeCl3 solution for different times. The results show that severe corrosion occurred in areas of clustered CaS inclusions. Sulfide inclusions containing Ca and Mg induced the strongest localized corrosion susceptibility. For the case of (Ca,Mn,Mg)S inclusions, the ability to induce localized corrosion susceptibility is ranked as follows: MgS > CaS > MnS. Moreover, CaS, (Ca,Mn)S, and (Ca,Mn,Mg)S inclusions were mainly responsible for inducing environmental embrittlement.
Graphene is an ideal reinforcing phase for a high-performance composite filler, which is of great theoretical and practical significance for improving the wettability and reliability of the filler. However, the poor adsorption characteristics between graphene and the silver base filler significantly affect the application of graphene filler in the brazing field. It is a great challenge to improve the adsorption characteristics between a graphene and silver base filler. To solve this issue, the adsorption characteristic between graphene and silver was studied with first principle calculation. The effects of Ga, Mo, and W on the adsorption properties of graphene were explored. There are three possible adsorbed sites, the hollow site (H), the bridge site (B), and the top site (T). Based on this research, the top site is the most preferentially adsorbed site for Ag atoms, and there is a strong interaction between graphene and Ag atoms. Metal element doping enhances local hybridization between C or metal atoms and Ag. Furthermore, compared with other doped structures (Ga and Mo), W atom doping is the most stable adsorption structure and can also improve effective adsorption characteristic performance between graphene and Ag.
A 3D model applying temperature- and carbon concentration- dependent material properties was developed to describe the scrap melting behavior and carbon diffusion under natural convection. Simulated results agreed reasonably well with experimental ones. Scrap melting was subdivided into four stages: formation of a solidified layer, rapid melting of the solidified layer, carburization, and carburization + normal melting. The carburization stage could not be ignored at low temperature because the carburization time for the sample investigated was 214 s at 1573 K compared to 12 s at 1723 K. The thickness of the boundary layer with significant concentration difference at 1573 K increased from 130 μm at 5 s to 140 μm at 60 s. The maximum velocity caused by natural convection decreased from 0.029 m·s−1 at 5 s to 0.009 m·s−1 at 634 s because the differences in temperature and density between the molten metal and scrap decreased with time.
Open cell steel foams were successfully fabricated through the powder metallurgy route using urea granules as the water leachable space holder in the present study. The influence of different amounts of phosphorus (0, 0.5wt%, 1wt%, 2wt%, and 4wt%) was investigated on the cell morphology, porosity, microstructure of cell walls, and mechanical properties of steel foams. The cell morphology and microstructure of the cell walls were evaluated using an optical microscope equipped with image processing software and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. In addition, the compression tests were conducted on the steel foams using a universal testing machine. Based on microscopic images, the porous structure consists of spherical cells and irregularly shaped pores that are distributed in the cell walls. The results indicated that by increasing the phosphorus content, the porosity increases from 71.9% to 83.2%. The partially distributed ferrite and fine pearlite was observed in the microstructure of the cell walls, and α-Fe and Fe3P eutectic extended between the boundaries of agglomerated iron particles. Furthermore, elastic and long saw-toothed plateau regions were observed before fracture in the compressional stress–strain curves. According to the results, by increasing the phosphorus content from 0 to 4wt%, the plateau region of the stress–strain curves shifts to the right and upward. Therefore, increasing phosphorus content causes improvement in the mechanical properties of steel foams.
Duplex-structured TC21 alloy samples were first solution-treated at a higher temperature in the α + β region (940°C) with furnace cooling (FC), air cooling (AC), and water cooling (WC), followed by a second-stage solution treatment at a lower temperature in the α + β region (900°C), and then finally aged at 590°C. The effects of the morphology and quantity of α phases on the structure and properties of the TC21 alloy after the different heat treatments were analyzed. The in-situ tensile deformation process and crack propagation behavior were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quantity of equiaxed α phases as well as the thickness of lamellar α phases reduced, the tensile strength increased firstly and then decreased, the elongation decreased with the increasing cooling rate after the first-stage solution treatment. The amount and size of lamellar α phases increased after the second-stage solution treatment because of sufficient diffusion of the alloying elements, thereby leading to increased tensile strength. The amount of dispersed α phases increased after the third-stage aging treatment owing to the increase in the nucleation rate, resulting in a noteworthy strengthening effect. After the third-stage aging treatment, the first-stage FC sample exhibited better mechanical properties because it contained more equiaxed α and βtrans phases than the first-stage AC and WC samples.
Computational simulations and high-temperature measurements of velocities near the surface of a mold were carried out by using the rod deflection method to study the effects of various operating parameters on the flow field in slab continuous casting (CC) molds with narrow widths for the production of automobile exposed panels. Reasonable agreement between the calculated results and measured subsurface velocities of liquid steel was obtained under different operating parameters of the CC process. The simulation results reveal that the flow field in the horizontal plane located 50 mm from the meniscus can be used as the characteristic flow field to optimize the flow field of molten steel in the mold. Increases in casting speed can increase the subsurface velocity of molten steel and shift the position of the vortex core downward in the downward circulation zone. The flow field of liquid steel in a 1040 mm-wide slab CC mold can be improved by an Ar gas flow rate of 7 L·min−1 and casting speed of 1.7 m·min−1. Under the present experimental conditions, the double-roll flow pattern is generally stable at a submerged entry nozzle immersion depth of 170 mm.
The oxidation of oxygen ions and the generation of an anode effect at a low oxygen content of 150 mg/kg were discussed in this paper. Cyclic voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry tests were conducted to explore the anodic processes of LiF–NdF3 melt after a lengthy period of pre-electrolysis purification at 1000°C (during which the oxygen content reduced from 413 to 150 mg/kg). The oxidation process of oxygen ions was found to have two stages: oxidation product adsorption and CO/CO2 gas evolution. The adsorption stage was controlled by diffusion, whereas the gas evolution was controlled by the electrochemical reaction. In comparison with oxygen content of 413 mg/kg, the decrease in the amplitude of the current at low oxygen content of 150 mg/kg was much gentler during the forward scanning process when the anode effect occurred. Fluorine-ion oxidation peaks that occurred at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li+ could be clearly observed in the reverse scanning processes, in which fluorine ions were oxidized and perfluorocarbons were produced, which resulted in an anode effect.
The present study evaluates the reductive leaching of indium from indium-bearing zinc ferrite using oxalic acid as a reducer in sulfuric acid solution. The effect of main factors affecting the process rate, including the oxalic-acid-to-sulfuric-acid ratio, stirring rate, grain size, temperature, and the initial concentration of synergic acid, was precisely evaluated. The results confirmed the acceptable efficiency of dissolving indium in the presence of oxalic acid. The shrinking-core model with a chemical-reaction-controlled step can correctly describe the kinetics of indium dissolution. On the basis of an apparent activation energy of 44.55 kJ/mol and a reaction order with respect to the acid concentration of 1.14, the presence of oxalic acid was found to reduce the sensitivity to temperature changes and to increase the effect of changes in acid concentration. Finally, the equation of the kinetic model based on the factors under study is presented.
NH4HCO3 conversion followed by HCl leaching was performed and proven to be effective in extracting Pb and Sr from zinc extracted residual. The mechanism and operating conditions of NH4HCO3 conversion, including molar ratio of NH4HCO3 to zinc extracted residual, NH4HCO3 concentration, conversion temperature, conversion time, and stirring velocity, were discussed, and operating conditions were optimized by the orthogonal test. Experimental results indicate that NH4HCO3 conversion at temperatures ranging from 25 to 85°C follows the shrinking unreacted core model and is controlled by inner diffusion through the product layer. The extraction ratios of Pb and Sr under optimized conditions reached 85.15% and 87.08%, respectively. Moreover, the apparent activation energies of Pb and Sr were 13.85 and 13.67 kJ·mol−1, respectively.
For the purpose of exploring a potential process to produce FeMn, the effects of microwave heating on the carbothermal reduction characteristics of oxidized Mn ore was investigated. The microwave heating curve of the mixture of oxidized Mn ore and coke was analyzed in association with the characterization of dielectric properties. The comparative experiments were conducted on the carbothermal reductions through conventional and microwave heatings at temperatures ranging from 973 to 1373 K. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that carbothermal reactions under microwave heating proceeded to a greater extent and at a faster pace compared with those under conventional heating. The metal phases were observed in the microstructures only under microwave heating. The carbothermal reduction process under microwave heating was discussed. The electric and magnetic susceptibility differences were introduced into the thermodynamics analysis for the formation of metal Mn. The developed thermodynamics considered that microwave heating could make the reduction of MnO to Mn more accessible and increase the reduction extent.
This study was undertaken to investigate the tensile properties and hot tearing susceptibility of cast Al–Cu alloys containing excess Fe (up to 1.5wt%) and Si (up to 2.5wt%). According to the results, the optimum tensile properties and hot tearing resistance were achieved at Fe/Si mass ratio of 1, where the α-Fe phase was the dominant Fe compound. Increasing the Fe/Si mass ratio above unity increased the amounts of detrimental β-CuFe platelets in the microstructure, deteriorating the tensile properties and hot tearing resistance. Decreasing the mass ratio below unity increased the size and fraction of Si needles and micropores in the microstructure, also impairing the tensile properties and hot tearing resistance. The investigation of hot-torn surfaces revealed that the β-CuFe platelets disrupted the tear healing phenomenon by blocking interdendritic feeding channels, while the α-Fe intermetallics improved the hot tearing resistivity due to their compact morphology and high melting point.
Climate changes that occur as a result of global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released into the atmosphere are an alarming issue. Controlling greenhouse gas emissions is critically important for the current and future status of mining activities. The mining industry is one of the significant contributors of greenhouse gases. In essence, anthropogenic greenhouse gases are emitted directly during the actual mining and indirectly released by the energy-intensive activities associated with mining equipment, ore transport, and the processing industry. Therefore, we reviewed both direct and indirect GHG emissions to analyze how mining contributes to climate change. In addition, we showed how climate change impacts mineral production. This assessment was performed using a GHG inventory model for the gases released from mines undergoing different product life cycles. We also elucidate the key issues and various research outcomes to demonstrate how the mining industry and policymakers can mitigate GHG emission from the mining sector. The review concludes with an overview of GHG release reduction and mitigation strategies.
The demand for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) for vehicles is increasing. However, LIBs use valuable rare metals, such as Co and Li, as well as environmentally toxic reagents. LIBs are also necessary to utilize for a long period and to recycle useful materials. The reduction, reuse, and recycle (3R) of spent LIBs is an important consideration in constructing a circular economy. In this paper, a flowsheet of the 3R of LIBs is proposed and methods to reduce the utilization of valuable rare metals and the amount of spent LIBs by remanufacturing used parts and designing new batteries considering the concept of 3R are described. Next, several technological processes for the reuse and recycling of LIBs are introduced. These technologies include discharge, sorting, crushing, binder removal, physical separation, and pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processing. Each process, as well as the related physical, chemical, and biological treatments, are discussed. Finally, the problem of developed technologies and future subjects for 3R of LIBs are described.
This review summarizes the strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. High-angle grain boundaries, subgrain boundaries, nano-sized M23C6, and MX carbide precipitates effectively hinder dislocation motion and increase high-temperature strength. M23C6 carbides are easily coarsened under high temperatures, thereby weakening their ability to block dislocations. Creep properties are improved through the reduction of M23C6 carbides. Thus, the loss of strength must be compensated by other strengthening mechanisms. This review also outlines the recent progress in the development of RAFM steels. Oxide dispersion-strengthened steels prevent M23C6 precipitation by reducing C content to increase creep life and introduce a high density of nano-sized oxide precipitates to offset the reduced strength. Severe plastic deformation methods can substantially refine subgrains and MX carbides in the steel. The thermal deformation strengthening of RAFM steels mainly relies on thermo-mechanical treatment to increase the MX carbide and subgrain boundaries. This procedure increases the creep life of TMT(thermo-mechanical treatment) 9Cr–1W–0.06Ta steel by ~20 times compared with those of F82H and Eurofer 97 steels under 550°C/260 MPa.