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Invited Review

Strengthening mechanisms of the reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steels: A review

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  • Received: 20 April 2020Revised: 12 June 2020Accepted: 18 June 2020Available online: 21 June 2020
  • Strengthening mechanisms in the reduced activated ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels have been reviewed. High-angle grain boundaries, subgrain boundaries, nanosized M23C6 and MX carbide precipitates effectively hinder dislocation motion and increase high temperature strength. M23C6 carbide is easy to coarsen under high temperatures and the ability of blocking dislocations is then weakened. The improvement of creep property mainly relies on the reduction of the M23C6 carbide, thus the loss of strength must be compensated by other strengthening mechanisms. The recent progress in development of the RAFM steel is also outlined. To increase creep life, a design strategy of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel is to prevent M23C6 precipitation by reducing the C content, and to introduce high density of nanosized oxide precipitates to offset the reduced strength. Another approach is to apply severe plastic deformation methods, as both subgrains and MX carbides can be substantially refined in the steel. Thermal deformation strengthening of the RAFM steel mainly relies on the thermo-mechanical treatment process to increase the MX carbide and subgrain boundaries, leading to an increase of ~20 times in creep life for the TMT 9Cr-1W-0.06Ta steel compared with the F82H and Eurofer 97 steels under 550℃/ 260 MPa.
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Strengthening mechanisms of the reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steels: A review

  • Corresponding authors:

    Yong-feng shen    E-mail: shenyf@smm.neu.edu.cn

    Nan Jia    E-mail: jian@atm.neu.edu.cn

  • 1. Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819,China
  • 2. The State Key Lab of Rolling & Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China

Abstract: Strengthening mechanisms in the reduced activated ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels have been reviewed. High-angle grain boundaries, subgrain boundaries, nanosized M23C6 and MX carbide precipitates effectively hinder dislocation motion and increase high temperature strength. M23C6 carbide is easy to coarsen under high temperatures and the ability of blocking dislocations is then weakened. The improvement of creep property mainly relies on the reduction of the M23C6 carbide, thus the loss of strength must be compensated by other strengthening mechanisms. The recent progress in development of the RAFM steel is also outlined. To increase creep life, a design strategy of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel is to prevent M23C6 precipitation by reducing the C content, and to introduce high density of nanosized oxide precipitates to offset the reduced strength. Another approach is to apply severe plastic deformation methods, as both subgrains and MX carbides can be substantially refined in the steel. Thermal deformation strengthening of the RAFM steel mainly relies on the thermo-mechanical treatment process to increase the MX carbide and subgrain boundaries, leading to an increase of ~20 times in creep life for the TMT 9Cr-1W-0.06Ta steel compared with the F82H and Eurofer 97 steels under 550℃/ 260 MPa.

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