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Invited Review

3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery for Automobiles: A Review

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  • Received: 28 March 2020Revised: 24 June 2020Accepted: 24 June 2020Available online: 26 June 2020
  • The demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for vehicles is increasing. LIBs use valuable rare metals such as cobalt and lithium and environmentally toxic reagents. LIBs are also necessary to utilize for a long period and to recycle useful materials. The 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycling) of spent LIBs becomes more important considering the circular economy. In this paper, the flowsheets of LIBs treatment process for 3R has been proposed. The reduction of resources, design considering 3R, and reuse method are described. Next, the several technological processes for LIBs for reuse and recycling are introduced from many published papers. The technologies include discharge, sorting, crushing, binder removal, physical separation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process. Each process is mainly listed on the tables including the physical, chemical, and biological treatments. Finally, the trend and subject for 3R of LIBs are described.
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3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery for Automobiles: A Review

  • Corresponding authors:

    Toyohisa Fujita    E-mail: fujitatoyohisa@gxu.edu.cn

    Yue-zou Wei    E-mail: yzwei@gxu.edu.cn

  • 1. College of Resources, Environment and Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004 China
  • 2. Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan

Abstract: The demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for vehicles is increasing. LIBs use valuable rare metals such as cobalt and lithium and environmentally toxic reagents. LIBs are also necessary to utilize for a long period and to recycle useful materials. The 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycling) of spent LIBs becomes more important considering the circular economy. In this paper, the flowsheets of LIBs treatment process for 3R has been proposed. The reduction of resources, design considering 3R, and reuse method are described. Next, the several technological processes for LIBs for reuse and recycling are introduced from many published papers. The technologies include discharge, sorting, crushing, binder removal, physical separation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process. Each process is mainly listed on the tables including the physical, chemical, and biological treatments. Finally, the trend and subject for 3R of LIBs are described.

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