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Research Article

Electrochemical properties of Ca-Pb electrode for calcium-based liquid metal batteries

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  • Received: 27 April 2020Revised: 17 July 2020Accepted: 20 July 2020Available online: 24 July 2020
  • The Ca-Pb electrode couple was considered to be one of the lowest cost (~36 $ kWh−1 ) among various optional materials for liquid metal battery. The electrochemical properties of Ca-Pb alloy in the Ca| LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2|Pb cell were investigated in this paper. The electrode potential maintains a linear relationship in the current density range from 50 to 200 mA cm-2, which indicates that the alloying and dealloying process of Ca with Pb have the rapid charge transfer and mass transport in the interface between the liquid electrode and liquid electrolyte. The Ca-Pb electrode exhibits great properties with a high discharge voltage of 0.6 V, a small self-discharge current density (< 2 mA cm-2 at 600°C) and a high coulombic efficiency (> 99%). The post-mortem analysis shows that the intermetallics CaPb3 and CaPb were uniformly distributed in the electrode, which indicates that the nucleation of solid intermetallics will not hinder the diffusion of Ca in the electrode. It is noted that this invesitgation on Ca-Pb electrode sheds light on further research and design of electrode for Ca based liquid metal battery.
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Electrochemical properties of Ca-Pb electrode for calcium-based liquid metal batteries

  • Corresponding author:

    Xiao-hui Ning    E-mail: xiaohuining@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

  • Center for Advancing Materials Performance from the Nanoscale (CAMP-Nano), State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China

Abstract: The Ca-Pb electrode couple was considered to be one of the lowest cost (~36 $ kWh−1 ) among various optional materials for liquid metal battery. The electrochemical properties of Ca-Pb alloy in the Ca| LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2|Pb cell were investigated in this paper. The electrode potential maintains a linear relationship in the current density range from 50 to 200 mA cm-2, which indicates that the alloying and dealloying process of Ca with Pb have the rapid charge transfer and mass transport in the interface between the liquid electrode and liquid electrolyte. The Ca-Pb electrode exhibits great properties with a high discharge voltage of 0.6 V, a small self-discharge current density (< 2 mA cm-2 at 600°C) and a high coulombic efficiency (> 99%). The post-mortem analysis shows that the intermetallics CaPb3 and CaPb were uniformly distributed in the electrode, which indicates that the nucleation of solid intermetallics will not hinder the diffusion of Ca in the electrode. It is noted that this invesitgation on Ca-Pb electrode sheds light on further research and design of electrode for Ca based liquid metal battery.

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