|Cite this article as:|
|Xin Lu, Weijian Tian, Hui Li, Xinjian Li, Kui Quan, and Hao Bai, Decarbonisation options of the iron and steel making industry based on a 3-dimensional analysis, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-022-2475-7|
Decarbonisation is a critical issue to peak CO2 emissions of energy-intensity industries, such as iron and steel making sector. The decarbonisation options of China`s iron and steel making sector were discussed based on a systematic 3-dimensional low-carbon analysis, from aspects of resource utilization (Y), energy utilization (Q), and energy cleanliness (PGEF), on all the related processes, including the current Blast Furnace-Basic Oxygen Furnace integrated process and the specific sub-processes, as well as the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) process, typical Direct Reduction (DR) process, and Smelting Reduction (SR) process. The study indicates that the 3-dimensional aspects, particularly the energy structure, should be comprehensively considered to quantitatively evaluate the decarbonisation roadmap based on novel technologies or processes. Particularly, promoting the scrap utilization (improvement of Y) and the substitution of the carbon-based energy (improvement of PGEF) is found critical. In terms of process scale, promoting the scrap-based EAF or DR-EAF process development is highly encouraged, owing to their lower PGEF. Emphatically, the 3-dimensional method is expected to extend to other processes or industries, such as cement production and thermal electricity generation industry.