|Cite this article as:|
|Zichuan Zhao, Jue Tang, Mansheng Chu, Jinge Feng, Feng Li, and Zhenggen Liu, Direct reduction swelling behavior of pellets in gas-based shaft furnaces based on typical atmospheres for hydrogen metallurgy, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-022-2494-4|
Hydrogen-based shaft furnace process was gaining more and more attention due to its low carbon emission, and the reduction behavior significantly affects its operation. In this work, the effects of reduction degree, temperature, and atmosphere on the swelling behavior had been studied thoroughly under typical hydrogen metallurgy conditions. The results showed that the pellets swelled rapidly in the early reduction stage, then reached a maximum reduction swelling index (RSI) at approximately 40% reduction degree. The crystalline transformation of the iron oxides during the reduction process was the main reason of pellets swelling. The RSI increased significantly with increasing temperature in the range of 850°C-1050°C, the maximum RSI increased from 6.66% to 25.0% in the gas composition of 100% H2. With the temperature increased, the pellets suffered more thermal stress resulting in an increase of the volume. The maximum RSI decreased from 14.77% to 10.92% with the proportion of H2 in the atmosphere increased from 55% to 100% at the temperature of 950°C. The metallic iron tended to precipitate in a lamellar structure rather than whiskers. Consequently, the inside of the pellets became regular, so the RSI decreased. Overall, controlling a reasonable temperature and increasing the H2 proportion was an effective way to decrease the RSI of pellets.