Fuyuan Liang, Jiaran Yang, Haiqing Wang, and Junwei Wu, Fabrication of Gd2O3-doped CeO2 thin films through DC reactive sputtering and their application in solid oxide fuel cells, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-023-2620-y
Cite this article as:
Fuyuan Liang, Jiaran Yang, Haiqing Wang, and Junwei Wu, Fabrication of Gd2O3-doped CeO2 thin films through DC reactive sputtering and their application in solid oxide fuel cells, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-023-2620-y
Research Article

Fabrication of Gd2O3-doped CeO2 thin films through DC reactive sputtering and their application in solid oxide fuel cells

+ Author Affiliations
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Corresponding author:

    Junwei Wu    E-mail: junwei.wu@hit.edu.cn

  • Received: 28 December 2022Revised: 21 February 2023Accepted: 24 February 2023Available online: 25 February 2023
  • Physical vapor deposition (PVD) can be used to produce high-quality Gd2O3-doped CeO2 (GDC) films. Among various PVD methods, reactive sputtering provides unique benefits, such as high deposition rates and easy upscaling for industrial applications. GDC thin films were successfully fabricated through reactive sputtering using a Gd0.2Ce0.8 (at%) metallic target, and their application in solid oxide fuel cells, such as buffer layers between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ and as sublayers in the steel/coating system, was evaluated. First, the direct current (DC) reactive-sputtering behavior of the GdCe metallic target was determined. Then, the GDC films were deposited on NiO–YSZ/YSZ half-cells to investigate the influence of oxygen flow rate on the quality of annealed GDC films. The results demonstrated that reactive sputtering can be used to prepare thin and dense GDC buffer layers without high-temperature sintering. Furthermore, the cells with a sputtered GDC buffer layer showed better electrochemical performance than those with a screen-printed GDC buffer layer. In addition, the insertion of a GDC sublayer between the SUS441 interconnects and the Mn–Co spinel coatings contributed to the reduction of the oxidation rate for SUS441 at operating temperatures, according to the area-specific resistance tests.
  • loading
  • Supplementary Information-s12613-023-2620-y.docx
  • [1]
    Y. Zhang, R. Knibbe, J. Sunarso, et al., Recent progress on advanced materials for solid-oxide fuel cells operating below 500°C, Adv. Mater., 29(2017), No. 48, art. No. 1700132. doi: 10.1002/adma.201700132
    F.Y. Liang, J.R. Yang, Y.Y. Zhao, et al., A review of thin film electrolytes fabricated by physical vapor deposition for solid oxide fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 47(2022), No. 87, p. 36926. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.08.237
    B.C. Steele and A. Heinzel, Materials for fuel-cell technologies, Nature, 414(2001), No. 6861, p. 345. doi: 10.1038/35104620
    E.D. Wachsman and K.T. Lee, Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells, Science, 334(2011), No. 6058, p. 935. doi: 10.1126/science.1204090
    P. Boldrin and N.P. Brandon, Progress and outlook for solid oxide fuel cells for transportation applications, Nat. Catal., 2(2019), No. 7, p. 571. doi: 10.1038/s41929-019-0310-y
    Y.P. Su, Z. Zhong, and Z.J. Jiao, A novel multi-physics coupled heterogeneous single-cell numerical model for solid oxide fuel cell based on 3D microstructure reconstructions, Energy Environ. Sci., 15(2022), No. 6, p. 2410. doi: 10.1039/D2EE00485B
    S. Sarner, A. Schreiber, N.H. Menzler, and O. Guillon, Recycling strategies for solid oxide cells, Adv. Energy Mater., 12(2022), No. 35, art. No. 2201805. doi: 10.1002/aenm.202201805
    Z.G. Lu, S. Darvish, J. Hardy, J. Templeton, J. Stevenson, and Y. Zhong, SrZrO3 formation at the interlayer/electrolyte interface during (La1−xSrx)1−δCo1−yFeyO3 cathode sintering, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(2017), No. 10, p. F3097. doi: 10.1149/2.0141710jes
    K. Develos-Bagarinao, H. Yokokawa, H. Kishimoto, T. Ishiyama, K. Yamaji, and T. Horita, Elucidating the origin of oxide ion blocking effects at GDC/SrZr(Y)O3/YSZ interfaces, J. Mater. Chem. A, 5(2017), No. 18, p. 8733. doi: 10.1039/C7TA01589E
    S. Sønderby, P.L. Popa, J. Lu, et al., Strontium diffusion in magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria thin film barrier coatings for solid oxide fuel cells, Adv. Energy Mater., 3(2013), No. 7, p. 923. doi: 10.1002/aenm.201300003
    V. Wilde, H. Störmer, J. Szász, F. Wankmüller, E. Ivers-Tiffée, and D. Gerthsen, Gd0.2Ce0.8O2 diffusion barrier layer between (La0.58Sr0.4)(Co0.2Fe0.8)O3−δ cathode and Y0.16Zr0.84O2 electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells: Effect of barrier layer sintering temperature on microstructure, ACS Appl. Energy Mater., 1(2018), No. 12, p. 6790. doi: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00847
    A. Hauch, R. Küngas, P. Blennow, et al., Recent advances in solid oxide cell technology for electrolysis, Science, 370(2020), No. 6513, art. No. eaba6118. doi: 10.1126/science.aba6118
    J. Kim, S. Im, S.H. Oh, et al., Naturally diffused sintering aid for highly conductive bilayer electrolytes in solid oxide cells, Sci. Adv., 7(2021), No. 40, art. No. eabj8590. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abj8590
    Y. Lim, H. Lee, J. Park, and Y.B. Kim, Low-temperature constrained sintering of YSZ electrolyte with Bi2O3 sintering sacrificial layer for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, Ceram. Int., 48(2022), No. 7, p. 9673. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2021.12.168
    S.Y. Toor and E. Croiset, Reducing sintering temperature while maintaining high conductivity for SOFC electrolyte: Copper as sintering aid for samarium doped ceria, Ceram. Int., 46(2020), No. 1, p. 1148. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.09.083
    G.Y. Wang, Y.L. Zhang, and M.F. Han, Densification of Ce0.9Gd0.1O2−δ interlayer to improve the stability of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2−δ interface and SOFC, J. Electroanal. Chem., 857(2020), art. No. 113591. doi: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2019.113591
    D.W. Ni and V. Esposito, Densification of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 barrier layer by in-situ solid state reaction, J. Power Sources, 266(2014), p. 393. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.05.044
    H.J. Choi, Y.H. Na, D.W. Seo, S.K. Woo, and S.D. Kim, Densification of gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for SOECs and IT-SOFCs by a sol–gel process, Ceram. Int., 42(2016), No. 1, p. 545. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.08.143
    G.Y. Wang, C. Jia, Z.H. Sun, M. Chen, and M.F. Han, In situ densification of gadolinium-doped ceria interlayer by infiltration process in SOFC, ECS Trans., 91(2019), No. 1, p. 1149. doi: 10.1149/09101.1149ecst
    Q. Lyu, T.L. Zhu, H.X. Qu, et al., Lower down both ohmic and cathode polarization resistances of solid oxide fuel cell via hydrothermal modified gadolinia doped ceria barrier layer, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 41(2021), No. 12, p. 5931. doi: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2021.05.020
    Y. Yang, Y.X. Zhang, and M.F. Yan, A review on the preparation of thin-film YSZ electrolyte of SOFCs by magnetron sputtering technology, Sep. Purif. Technol., 298(2022), art. No. 121627. doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2022.121627
    M.G. Xu, J. Yu, Y.F. Song, R. Ran, W. Wang, and Z.P. Shao, Advances in ceramic thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, Energy Fuels, 34(2020), No. 9, p. 10568. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c02338
    B.S. Prakash, R. Pavitra, S.S. Kumar, and S.T. Aruna, Electrolyte bi-layering strategy to improve the performance of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell: A review, J. Power Sources, 381(2018), p. 136. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.02.003
    S. Hong, H. Yang, Y. Lim, F.B. Prinz, and Y.B. Kim, Grain-controlled gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) functional layer for interface reaction enhanced low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 11(2019), No. 44, p. 41338. doi: 10.1021/acsami.9b13999
    N. Coppola, P. Polverino, G. Carapella, et al., Optimization of the electrical performances in solid oxide fuel cells with room temperature sputter deposited Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 buffer layers by controlling their granularity via the in-air annealing step, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 45(2020), No. 23, p. 12997. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.02.187
    M. Morales, A. Pesce, A. Slodczyk, et al., Enhanced performance of gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barrier layers fabricated by pulsed laser deposition for large-area solid oxide fuel cells, ACS Appl. Energy Mater., 1(2018), No. 5, p. 1955. doi: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00039
    Y.G. Wang, C. Jia, Z.W. Lyu, et al., Performance and stability analysis of SOFC containing thin and dense gadolinium-doped ceria interlayer sintered at low temperature, J. Materiomics, 8(2022), No. 2, p. 347. doi: 10.1016/j.jmat.2021.09.001
    T. Franco, M. Haydn, R. Mücke, et al., Development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells, ECS Trans., 35(2011), No. 1, p. 343. doi: 10.1149/1.3570009
    V.V. Krishnan, Recent developments in metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells, WIREs Energy Environ., 6(2017), No. 5, art. No. e246. doi: 10.1002/wene.246
    D. Udomsilp, J. Rechberger, R. Neubauer, et al., Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells with exceptionally high power density for range extender systems, Cell Rep. Phys. Sci., 1(2020), No. 6, art. No. 100072. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrp.2020.100072
    M.A. Hassan, O.B. Mamat, and M. Mehdi, Review: Influence of alloy addition and spinel coatings on Cr-based metallic interconnects of solid oxide fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 45(2020), No. 46, p. 25191. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.06.234
    S.J. Geng, Q.Q. Zhao, Y.H. Li, et al., Sputtered MnCu metallic coating on ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects application, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 42(2017), No. 15, p. 10298. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.01.178
    J.C.W. Mah, A. Muchtar, M.R. Somalu, and M.J. Ghazali, Metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell: A review on protective coating and deposition techniques, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 42(2017), No. 14, p. 9219. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.03.195
    H.P. Tseng, T.Y. Yung, C.K. Liu, Y.N. Cheng, and R.Y. Lee, Oxidation characteristics and electrical properties of La- or Ce-doped MnCo2O4 as protective layer on SUS441 for metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 45(2020), No. 22, p. 12555. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.02.178
    T. Brylewski, S. Molin, M. Marczyński, et al., Influence of Gd deposition on the oxidation behavior and electrical properties of a layered system consisting of Crofer 22 APU and MnCo2O4 spinel, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 46(2021), No. 9, p. 6775. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.11.169
    H. Fan, M. Keane, P. Singh, and M.F. Han, Electrochemical performance and stability of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen electrode with gadolinia doped ceria barrier layer for reversible solid oxide fuel cell, J. Power Sources, 268(2014), p. 634. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.03.080
    Z.W. Lyu, S.X. Liu, Y.G. Wang, et al., Quantifying the performance evolution of solid oxide fuel cells during initial aging process, J. Power Sources, 510(2021), art. No. 230432. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.230432
    T.H. Cui, F.Y. Liang, R.T. Sun, et al., Preparation, evaluation, and application of SUS430/441 interconnect with Mn–Co coating in solid oxide fuel cells, ECS Trans., 103(2021), No. 1, p. 1713. doi: 10.1149/10301.1713ecst
    Y.X. Zeng, J.W. Wu, A.P. Baker, and X.B. Liu, Magnetron-sputtered Mn/Co (40:60) coating on ferritic stainless steel SUS430 for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(2014), No. 28, p. 16061. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.11.101
    D. Depla, G. Buyle, J. Haemers, and R. De Gryse, Discharge voltage measurements during magnetron sputtering, Surf. Coat. Technol., 200(2006), No. 14-15, p. 4329. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.02.166
    M. Mickan, P. Coddet, J. Vulliet, A. Caillard, T. Sauvage, and A.L. Thomann, Optimized magnetron sputtering process for the deposition of gadolinia doped ceria layers with controlled structural properties, Surf. Coat. Technol., 398(2020), art. No. 126095. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126095
    J. Szász, F. Wankmüller, V. Wilde, et al., Nature and functionality of La0.58Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ/Gd0.2Ce0.8O2−δ/Y0.16Zr0.84O2−δ interfaces in SOFCs, J. Electrochem. Soc., 165(2018), No. 10, p. F898. doi: 10.1149/2.0031811jes
    A. Tsoga, A. Gupta, A. Naoumidis, and P. Nikolopoulos, Gadolinia-doped ceria and yttria stabilized zirconia interfaces: Regarding their application for SOFC technology, Acta Mater., 48(2000), No. 18-19, p. 4709. doi: 10.1016/S1359-6454(00)00261-5
    K.L. Wang, Y.J. Liu, and J.W. Fergus, Interactions between SOFC interconnect coating materials and chromia, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 94(2011), No. 12, p. 4490. doi: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2011.04749.x
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索


    Share Article

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(62) PDF Downloads(20) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint