|Cite this article as:|
|Yukun Huang, Pengxu Chen, Xuanzhao Shu, Biao Fu, Weijun Peng, Jiang Liu, Yijun Cao, and Xiaofeng Zhu, Extraction and recycling technologies of critical metal of cobalt from primary and secondary resources: A comprehensive review, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-023-2734-2|
Cobalt has excellent electrochemical, magnetic, and heat properties. As a strategic resource, it has been applied in many high-tech products. However, the rapid growth of the battery industry in recent years has resulted in a significant depletion of cobalt resources, leading to a crisis of cobalt resources supply. The paper examines cobalt ore reserve and distribution, and summarizes recent development and consumption of cobalt resources. And the principles, advantages and disadvantages, and research status of various methods are discussed comprehensively. It can be concluded that the utilization of diverse sources (Cu-Co ores, Ni-Co ores, zinc plant residues, and waste cobalt products) for producing cobalt will be enhanced to meet developmental requirements. And in recovering technology, the pyro-hydrometallurgical process employs pyrometallurgy as the pre-treatment to modify the phase structure of cobalt minerals, enhancing its recovery in the hydrometallurgical stage and facilitating high-purity cobalt production. Consequently, it represents a highly promising technology for future cobalt recovery. Lastly, based on the above conclusions, the prospects for cobalt, in terms of cobalt ores processing and sustainable cobalt recycling for which further study should be conducted in the future.