Tingting Liand Jian Yang, State of the art in oxide metallurgy technology for improving weldability of high-strength low alloy steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-023-2754-y
Cite this article as:
Tingting Liand Jian Yang, State of the art in oxide metallurgy technology for improving weldability of high-strength low alloy steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater.,(2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-023-2754-y
Invited Review

State of the art in oxide metallurgy technology for improving weldability of high-strength low alloy steel

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  • Received: 13 June 2023Revised: 10 September 2023Accepted: 26 September 2023Available online: 28 September 2023
  • The mechanisms of oxide metallurgy technology include inducing IAF using micron-sized inclusions and restricting the growth of prior austenite grains (PAGs) by nano-sized particles during the welding process. The typical oxide metallurgy technologies include the HTUFF technology, JFE EWEL, KST technology, the ETISD technology, and so on. The complex deoxidation of Ti with other strong deoxidant elements such as Mg, Ca, Zr and rare earth metals (REM) can improve the HAZ toughness. The Mg addition is more effective in promoting the precipitation of TiN particles to refine the PAG size. The Ca addition can effectively improve the IAF nucleation due to the formation of Ca oxysulfide. Zr-containing inclusions are also effective in inducing IAF nucleation. REM can refine precipitates and induce IAF. Increasing C, Si, Al, Nb, Cr content will all impair the HAZ toughness. Higher C content usually increase the number of coarse carbides and decrease the potency of the IAF formation. The Si and Cr addition both lead to the formation of undesirable microstructures. The high Al content in steel is not beneficial to the IAF nucleation due to the formation of Al2O3 inclusions. Nb is soluble in TiN particles to form (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles which have poor high-temperature stability. On the other hand, Mo, V and B can enhance the HAZ toughness. Mo-containing precipitates seem to present better thermal stability, and increasing Mo content can refine precipitates. VN or V(C, N) prefers to be effective in promoting the nucleation of IAF due the good crystallographic coherent relationship with ferrite. The segregation of B atoms at the PAG boundary and the B depleted zone around inclusion will promote the formation of IAF.

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