Xiao-qing Ni, De-cheng Kong, Ying Wen, Liang Zhang, Wen-heng Wu, Bei-bei He, Lin Lu, and De-xiang Zhu, Anisotropy in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 26(2019), No. 3, pp. 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-019-1740-x
Cite this article as:
Xiao-qing Ni, De-cheng Kong, Ying Wen, Liang Zhang, Wen-heng Wu, Bei-bei He, Lin Lu, and De-xiang Zhu, Anisotropy in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 26(2019), No. 3, pp. 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-019-1740-x
Research Article

Anisotropy in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting

+ Author Affiliations
  • Corresponding author:

    Liang Zhang    E-mail: lzhang0126@hotmail.com

  • Received: 24 June 2018Revised: 29 July 2018Accepted: 25 September 2018
  • The corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel (SS) fabricated via selective laser melting (SLM) were clarified by potentiodynamic polarization measurements, immersion tests, and tensile experiments. The microstructural anisotropy of SLMed 316L SS was also investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The grain sizes of the SLMed 316L SS in the XOZ plane were smaller than those of the SLMed 316L SS in the XOY plane, and a greater number of low-angle boundaries were present in the XOY plane, resulting in lower elongation for the XOY plane than for the XOZ plane. The SLMed 316L was expected to exhibit higher strength but lower ductility than the wrought 316L, which was attributed to the high density of dislocations. The pitting potentials of the SLMed 316L samples were universally higher than those of the wrought sample in chloride solutions because of the annihilation of MnS or (Ca,Al)-oxides during the rapid solidification. However, the molten pool boundaries preferentially dissolved in aggressive solutions and the damage of the SLMed 316L in FeCl3 solution was more serious after long-term service, indicating poor durability.
  • loading
  • [1]
    T. DebRoy, H.L. Wei, J.S. Zuback, T. Mukherjee, J.W. Elmer, J.O. Milewski, A.M. Beese, A. Wilson-Heid, A. De, and W. Zhang, Additive manufacturing of metallic components-process, structure and properties, Prog. Mater. Sci., 92(2018), p. 112.
    [2]
    H.P. Duan, X. Liu, X.Z. Ran, J. Li, and D. Liu, Mechanical properties and microstructure of 3D-printed high Co-Ni secondary hardening steel fabricated by laser melting deposition, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 24(2017), p. 1027.
    [3]
    F. Mao, C. Dong, and D.D. Macdonald, Effect of octadecylamine on the corrosion behavior of type 316SS in acetate buffer, Corros. Sci., 98(2015), p. 192.
    [4]
    X.W. Lei, H.Y. Wang, F.X. Mao, J.P. Zhang, A.Q. Fu, Y.R. Feng, and D.D. Macdonald, Electrochemical behaviour of martensitic stainless steel after immersion in a H2S-saturated solution, Corros. Sci., 131(2018), p. 164.
    [5]
    C.F. Dong, A.Q. Fu, X.G. Li, and Y.F. Cheng, Localized EIS characterization of corrosion of steel at coating defect under cathodic protection, Electrochim. Acta, 54(2008), No. 2, p. 628.
    [6]
    Y.B. Hu, C.F. Dong, M. Sun, K. Xiao, P. Zhong, and X.G. Li, Effects of solution ph and Cl- on electrochemical behaviour of an aermet100 ultra-high strength steel in acidic environments, Corros. Sci., 53(2011), No. 12, p. 4159.
    [7]
    S.J. Gao, C.F. Dong, H. Luo, K. Xiao, X.M. Pan, and X.G. Li, Scanning electrochemical microscopy study on the electrochemical behavior of CrN film formed on 304 stainless steel by magnetron sputtering, Electrochim. Acta, 114(2013), p. 233.
    [8]
    L. Fan, H.Y. Chen, Y.H. Dong, L.H. Dong, and Y.S. Yin, Wear and corrosion resistance of laser-cladded Fe-based composite coatings on AISI 4130 steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 25(2018), No. 6, p. 716.
    [9]
    Y.Z. Zhang, C. Huang, and R. Vilar, Microstructure and properties of laser direct deposited CuNi17Al3Fe1.5Cr alloy, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 18(2011), No. 3, p. 325.
    [10]
    Y. Kok, X.P. Tan, P. Wang, M.L.S. Nai, N.H. Loh, E. Liu, and S.B. Tor, Anisotropy and heterogeneity of microstructure and mechanical properties in metal additive manufacturing:A critical review, Mater. Des., 139(2018), p. 565.
    [11]
    S. Van Bael, Y.C. Chai, S. Truscello, M. Moesen, G. Kerckhofs, H. Van Oosterwyck, J.P. Kruth, and J. Schrooten, The effect of pore geometry on the in vitro biological behavior of human periosteum-derived cells seeded on selective laser-melted Ti6Al4V bone scaffolds, Acta Biomater., 8(2012), No. 7, p. 2824.
    [12]
    G. Miranda, S. Faria, F. Bartolomeu, E. Pinto, S. Madeira, A. Mateus, P. Carreira, N. Alves, F.S. Silva, and O. Carvalho, Predictive models for physical and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel produced by selective laser melting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 657(2016), p. 43.
    [13]
    F.X. Xie, X.B. He, S.L. Cao, and X.H. Qu, Structural and mechanical characteristics of porous 316L stainless steel fabricated by indirect selective laser sintering, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 213(2013), No. 6, p. 838.
    [14]
    A. Röttger, K. Geenen, M. Windmann, F. Binner, and W. Theisen, Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic steel processed by selective laser melting with hot-isostatic pressed and cast material, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 678(2016), p. 365.
    [15]
    K. Saeidi, X. Gao, Y. Zhong, and Z.J. Shen, Hardened austenite steel with columnar sub-grain structure formed by laser melting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 625(2015), p. 221.
    [16]
    X.Q. Ni, D.C. Kong, W.H. Wu, L. Zhang, C.F. Dong, B.B. He, L. Lu, K.Q. Wu, and D.X. Zhu, Corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting under different scanning speeds, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 27(2018), No. 7, p. 3667.
    [17]
    N.W. Dai, L.C. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q.Z. Ni, Y. Chen, M.L. Wu, and C. Yang, Distinction in corrosion resistance of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy on different planes, Corros. Sci., 111(2016), p. 703.
    [18]
    G.Q. Yang, J.K. Mo, Z.Y. Kang, F.A. List, J.B. Green, S.S. Babu, and F.Y. Zhang, Additive manufactured bipolar plate for high-efficiency hydrogen production in proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 42(2017), No. 21, p. 14734.
    [19]
    B.R. Hou, X.G. Li, X.M. Ma, C.W. Du, D.W. Zhang, M. Zheng, W.C. Xu, D.Z. Lu, and F.B. Ma, The cost of corrosion in China, npj Mater. Degrad., 1(2017), art. No. 4.
    [20]
    X.G. Li, D.W. Zhang, Z.Y. Liu, Z. Li, C.W. Du, and C.F. Dong, Materials science:Share corrosion data, Nature, 527(2015), No. 7579, p. 441.
    [21]
    D.C. Kong, C.F. Dong, Y.H. Fang, K. Xiao, C.Y. Guo, G. He, and X.G. Li, Long-term corrosion of copper in hot and dry atmosphere in Turpan, China, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 25(2016), No. 7, p. 2977.
    [22]
    D.C. Kong, C.F. Dong, X.Q. Ni, A.N. Xu, C. He, K. Xiao, and X.G. Li, Long-term polarisation and immersion for copper corrosion in high-level nuclear waste environment, Mater. Corros., 68(2017), No. 10, p. 1070.
    [23]
    D.C. Kong, C.F. Dong, X.Q. Ni, C. Man, K. Xiao, and X.G. Li, Insight into the mechanism of alloying elements (Sn,Be) effect on copper corrosion during long-term degradation in harsh marine environment, Appl. Surf. Sci., 455(2018), p. 543.
    [24]
    H. Luo, C.F. Dong, K. Xiao, and X.G. Li, Characterization of passive film on 2205 duplex stainless steel in sodium thiosulphate solution, Appl. Surf. Sci., 258(2011), No. 1, p. 631.
    [25]
    C.F. Dong, Z.Y. Liu, X.G. Li, and Y.F. Cheng, Effects of hydrogen-charging on the susceptibility of X100 pipeline steel to hydrogen-induced cracking, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 34(2009), No. 24, p. 9879.
    [26]
    C.F. Dong, X.G. Li, Z.Y. Liu, and Y.R. Zhang, Hydrogen-induced cracking and healing behaviour of X70 steel, J. Alloys Compd., 484(2009), No. 1-2, p. 966.
    [27]
    G. Sander, S. Thomas, V. Cruz, M. Jurg, N. Birbilis, X. Gao, M. Brameld, and C.R. Hutchinson, On the corrosion and metastable pitting characteristics of 316L stainless steel produced by selective laser melting, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(2017), No. 6, p. 250.
    [28]
    R.F. Schaller, A. Mishra, J.M. Rodelas, J.M. Taylor, and E.J. Schindelholz, The role of microstructure and surface finish on the corrosion of selective laser melted 304L, J. Electrochem. Soc., 165(2018), No. 5, p. 234.
    [29]
    W.E. Frazier, Metal additive manufacturing:A review, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 23(2014), No. 6, p. 1917.
    [30]
    P. Guo, B. Zou, C.Z. Huang, and H.B. Gao, Study on microstructure, mechanical properties and machinability of efficiently additive manufactured AISI 316L stainless steel by high-power direct laser deposition, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 240(2017), p. 12.
    [31]
    J.R. Trelewicz, G.P. Halada, O.K. Donaldson, and G. Manogharan, Microstructure and corrosion resistance of laser additively manufactured 316L stainless steel, JOM, 68(2016), No. 3, p. 850.
    [32]
    Y. Chen, J.X. Zhang, X.H. Gu, N.W. Dai, P. Qin, and L.C. Zhang, Distinction of corrosion resistance of selective laser melted Al-12Si alloy on different planes, J. Alloys Compd., 747(2018), p. 648.
    [33]
    V.A. Popovich, E.V. Borisov, A.A. Popovich, V.S. Sufiiarov, D.V. Masaylo, and L. Alzina, Functionally graded inconel 718 processed by additive manufacturing:Crystallographic texture, anisotropy of microstructure and mechanical properties, Mater. Des., 114(2017), p. 441.
    [34]
    D.C. Kong, X.Q. Ni, C.F. Dong, X.W. Lei, L. Zhang, C. Man, J.Z. Yao, X.Q. Cheng, and X.G. Li, Bio-functional and anti-corrosive 3D printing 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting, Mater. Des., 152(2018), p. 88.
    [35]
    D.C. Kong, X.Q. Ni, C.F. Dong, L. Zhang, C. Man, J.Z. Yao, K. Xiao, and X.G. Li, Heat treatment effect on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Electrochim. Acta, 276(2018), p. 293.
    [36]
    R.F. Schaller, J.M. Taylor, J. Rodelas, and E.J. Schindelholz, Corrosion properties of powder bed fusion additively manufactured 17-4 PH stainless steel, Corrosion, 73(2017), No. 7, p. 796.
    [37]
    S.Q. Zheng, C.Y. Li, Y.M. Qi, L.Q. Chen, and C.F. Chen, Mechanism of (Mg,Al,Ca)-oxide inclusion-induced pitting corrosion in 316L stainless steel exposed to sulphur environments containing chloride ion, Corros. Sci., 67(2013), p. 20.
    [38]
    C. Man, C.F. Dong, K. Xiao, Q. Yu, and X.G. Li, The combined effect of chemical and structural factors on pitting corrosion induced by MnS-(Cr,Mn,Al)O duplex inclusions, Corrosion, 74(2018), No. 3, p. 312.
    [39]
    D.D. Macdonald, The history of the point defect model for the passive state:A brief review of film growth aspects, Electrochim. Acta, 56(2011), No. 4, p. 1761.
    [40]
    D.C. Kong, C.F. Dong, Z.R. Zheng, F.X. Mao, A.N. Xu, X.Q. Ni, C. Man, J.Z. Yao, K. Xiao, and X.G. Li, Surface monitoring for pitting evolution into uniform corrosion on Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy in alkaline chloride solution:ex-situ LCM and in-situ SECM, Appl. Surf. Sci., 440(2018), p. 245.
    [41]
    D.C. Kong, A.N. Xu, C.F. Dong, F.X. Mao, K. Xiao, X.G. Li, and D.D. Macdonald, Electrochemical investigation and ab initio computation of passive film properties on copper in anaerobic sulphide solutions, Corros. Sci., 116(2017), p. 34.
    [42]
    D.C. Kong, C.F. Dong, M.F. Zhao, X.Q. Ni, C. Man, and X.G. Li, Effect of chloride concentration on passive film properties on copper, Corros. Eng. Sci. Technol., 53(2017), No. 2, p. 122.
    [43]
    C.F. Dong, F.X. Mao, S.J. Gao, S. Sharifi-Asl, P. Lu, and D.D. Macdonald, Passivity breakdown on copper:Influence of temperature, J. Electrochem. Soc., 163(2016), No. 13, p. 707.
    [44]
    M. Suzuki, R. Yamaguchi, K. Murakami, and M. Nakada, Inclusion particle growth during solidification of stainless steel, ISIJ Int., 41(2007), No. 3, p. 247.
    [45]
    Q. Chao, V. Cruz, S. Thomas, N. Birbilis, P. Collins, A. Taylor, P.D. Hodgson, and D. Fabijanic, On the enhanced corrosion resistance of a selective laser melted austenitic stainless steel, Scripta Mater., 141(2017), p. 94.
    [46]
    W.D. Stewart and D.E. Williams, The initiation of pitting corrosion on austenitic stainless steel:On the role and importance of sulfide inclusions, Corros. Sci., 33(1992), No. 3, p. 457.
    [47]
    K. Geenen, A. Röttger, and W. Theisen, Corrosion behavior of 316L austenitic steel processed by selective laser melting, hot-isostatic pressing, and casting, Mater. Corros., 68(2017), No. 7, p. 764.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Share Article

    Article Metrics

    Article views (341) PDF downloads(11) Cited by()
    Proportional views

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return