Nilay Çömez, Can Çivi, and Hülya Durmuş, Reliability evaluation of hardness test methods of hardfacing coatings with hypoeutectic and hypereutectic microstructures, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 26(2019), No. 12, pp. 1585-1593.
Cite this article as:
Nilay Çömez, Can Çivi, and Hülya Durmuş, Reliability evaluation of hardness test methods of hardfacing coatings with hypoeutectic and hypereutectic microstructures, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 26(2019), No. 12, pp. 1585-1593.
Research Article

Reliability evaluation of hardness test methods of hardfacing coatings with hypoeutectic and hypereutectic microstructures

+ Author Affiliations
  • Corresponding author:

    Nilay Çömez    E-mail:

  • Received: 4 April 2019Revised: 15 May 2019Accepted: 2 June 2019
  • Hardfacing coatings involve hard carbide/boride phases dispersed in a relatively soft steel matrix. For the hardness measurements of hardfacing coatings, depending on the microstructure, both the hardness test method and the applied load affect the hardness results; therefore, they affect the wear performance predictions of the coating. For this reason, the proper hardness test method should be determined according to the microstructure of the coating, and the reliability of the obtained hardness data should be established. This study aimed to determine the most suitable hardness test method for hypoeutectic and hypereutectic microstructures of hardfacing coatings by analyzing the reliability of Rockwell-C and Vickers hardness test results. Reliability analyses showed that Rockwell-C is not a suitable hardness test method for hypereutectic hardfacing coatings. Based on the relationship between wear resistance and hardness, Vickers hardness method was found more suitable for the considered materials.
  • loading
  • [1]
    B. Srikarun and P. Muangjunburee, The effect of iron-based hardfacing with chromium powder addition onto low carbon steel, Mater. Today Proc., 5(2018), No. 3, p. 9272.
    H.Z. Oo and P. Muangjunburee, Wear behaviour of hardfacing on 3.5% chromium cast steel by submerged arc welding, Mater. Today Proc., 5(2018), No. 3, p. 9281.
    J.F. Gou, Y. Wang, J.P. Sun, and X.W. Li, Bending strength and wear behavior of Fe-Cr-C-B hardfacing alloys with and without rare earth oxide nanoparticles, Surf. Coat. Technol., 311(2017), p. 113.
    K. Yang, Y. Gao, K. Yang, Y.F. Bao, and Y.F. Jiang, Microstructure and wear resistance of Fe-Cr13-C-Nb hardfacing alloy with Ti addition, Wear, 376-377(2017), p. 1091.
    K. Günther, J.P. Bergmann, and D. Suchodoll, Hot wire-assisted gas metal arc welding of hypereutectic FeCrC hardfacing alloys:Microstructure and wear properties, Surf. Coat. Technol., 334(2018), p. 420.
    M.F. Buchely, J.C. Gutierrez, L.M. León, and A. Toro, The effect of microstructure on abrasive wear of hardfacing alloys, Wear, 259(2005), No. 1-6, p. 52. Wear
    H. Sabet, S. Khierandish, S. Mirdamadi, and M. Goodarzi, The microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys with the composition of hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic at Cr/C=6, Tribol. Lett., 44(2011), p. 237.
    K. Gurumoorthy, M. Kamaraj, K.P. Rao, A.S. Rao, and S. Venugopal, Microstructural aspects of plasma transferred arc surfaced Ni-based hardfacing alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 456(2007), No. 1-2, p. 11.
    F. Sadeghi, H. Najafi, and A. Abbasi, The effect of Ta substitution for Nb on the microstructure and wear resistance of an Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 324(2017), p. 85.
    H. Wang and S.F. Yu, Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and sliding wear resistance of high chromium cast iron electroslag hardfacing layer, Surf. Coat. Technol., 319(2017), p. 182.
    A. Gualco, H.G. Svoboda, and E.S. Surian, Study of abrasive wear resistance of Fe-based nanostructured hardfacing, Wear, 360-361(2016), p. 14.
    S. Da Sun, D. Fabijanic, A. Ghaderi, M. Leary, J. Toton, S.J. Sun, M. Brandt, and M. Easton, Microstructure and hardness characterisation of laser coatings produced with a mixture of AISI 420 stainless steel and Fe-C-Cr-Nb-B-Mo steel alloy powders, Surf. Coat. Technol., 296(2016), p. 76.
    V.G. Efremenko, Y.G. Chabak, A. Lekatou, A.E. Karantzalis, K. Shimizu, V.I. Fedun, A.Y. Azarkhov, and A.V. Efremenko, Pulsed plasma deposition of Fe-C-Cr-W coating on high-Cr-cast iron:Effect of layered morphology and heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness, Surf. Coat. Technol., 304(2016), p. 293.
    C.M. Chang, C.M. Lin, C.C. Hsieh, J.H. Chen, and W.T. Wu, Micro-structural characteristics of Fe-40wt%Cr-xC hardfacing alloys with[1.0-4.0wt%] carbon content, J. Alloys Compd., 487(2009), No. 1-2, p. 83.
    Y.F. Zhou, Y.L. Yang, Y.W. Jiang, J. Yang, X.J. Ren, and Q.X. Yang, Fe-24wt% Cr-4.1wt% C hardfacing alloy:Microstructure and carbide refinement mechanisms with ceria additive, Mater. Charact., 72(2012), p. 77.
    L. Condra, Reliability Improvement with Design of Experiment, CRC Press, USA, 2001, p. 11.
    B. Hlaas and J. Hlaassen, System Reliability:Concepts and Applications, Edward Arnold, VSSD, California, 1989, p. 11.
    Y.G. Zhao, X.Y. Zhang, and Z.H. Lu, A flexible distribution and its application in reliability engineering, Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 176(2018), p. 1.
    B. Gnedenko and I.A. Ushakov, Probabilistic Reliability Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995, p. 10.
    D.C. Montgomery and G.C. Runger, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2007, p. 109.
    W.G. Ireson, C.F. Coombs, and R.Y. Moss, Handbook of Reliability Engineering and Management, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1996, p. 308.
    A.L. Yurkov, N.V. Jhuravleva, and E.S. Lukin, Kinetic microhardness measurements of sialon-based ceramics, J. Mater. Sci., 29(1994), No. 24, p. 6551.
    J.M. Schneider, M. Bigerelle, and A. Iost, Statistical analysis of the Vickers hardness, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 262(1999), No. 1-2, p. 256.
    C. Çivi, N. Tahrali, and E. Atik, Reliability of mechanical properties of induction sintered iron based powder metal parts, Mater. Des., 53(2014), p. 383.
    V. Homolová and L. Čiripová, Experimental investigation of isothermal section of the B-Cr-Fe phase diagram at 1353 K, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., (2017), art. No. 2703986.
    Z.H. Wang, G.L. Wan, D.Y. He, J.M. Jiang, and L. Cui, Microstructures and wear resistance of Fe-Cr-B-C hardfacing alloys, J. Mater. Eng., 4(2014), No. 9, p. 57.
    M. Eroglu, Boride coatings on steel using shielded metal arc welding electrode:Microstructure and hardness, Surf. Coat. Technol., 203(2009), No. 16, p. 2229.
    C.C. Zhao, Y.F. Zhou, X.L. Xing, S. Liu, X.J. Ren, and Q.X. Yang, Investigation on the relationship between NbC and wear-resistance of Fe matrix composite coatings with different C contents, Appl. Surf. Sci., 439(2018), p. 468.
    X.R. Hou, B. Zhao, J. Yang, X.L. Xing, Y.F. Zhou, Y.L. Yang, and Q.X. Yang, Fe-0.4wt%C-6.5wt%Cr hardfacing coating:Microstructures and wear resistance with La2O3 additive, Appl. Surf. Sci., 317(2014), p. 312.
    C. Fan, M.C. Chen, C.M. Chang, W.T. Wu, Microstructure change caused by (Cr,Fe)23C6 carbides in high chromium Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys, Surf. Coat. Technol., 201(2006), No. 3-4, p. 908.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Share Article

    Article Metrics

    Article views (2341) PDF downloads(7) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint