Fan Zeng, Xue-jiao Bai, Cheng-liang Hu, Min-jun Tang, and Zhen Zhao, Effect of plastic strain and forming temperature on magnetic properties of low-carbon steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 27(2020), No. 2, pp. 210-219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-019-1905-7
Cite this article as:
Fan Zeng, Xue-jiao Bai, Cheng-liang Hu, Min-jun Tang, and Zhen Zhao, Effect of plastic strain and forming temperature on magnetic properties of low-carbon steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 27(2020), No. 2, pp. 210-219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-019-1905-7
Research Article

Effect of plastic strain and forming temperature on magnetic properties of low-carbon steel

+ Author Affiliations
  • Corresponding author:

    Zhen Zhao    E-mail: zzhao@sjtu.edu.cn

  • Received: 8 March 2019Revised: 16 August 2019Accepted: 28 August 2019Available online: 29 October 2019
  • Claw poles are a key component of automobile generators. The output power performance of the generator is very dependent on the magnetic properties of its claw poles. Plastic deformation is known to significantly change the magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic materials in claw poles. In this paper, changes in the magnetic properties of low-carbon steel, used for claw pole components due to their plastic deformation, were investigated for different strains and temperatures. Ring-shaped material samples were prepared by machining and their magnetic properties were measured. The surface roughness was first evaluated and a machining process with an arithmetic average of roughness Ra 1.6 μm was selected as enabling the lowest measurement error. Hysteresis loops at different applied magnetic fields of the material were obtained for different plastic strains and forming temperatures. The magnetic parameters of magnetic flux density, coercivity, and remanence were obtained and compared with magnetic flux density as the primary focus. Results showed that machining, cold forming, and hot forming all led to lower magnetic flux density, larger coercivity, and smaller remanence. Magnetic flux density showed a sharp decrease at the start of plastic deformation, but as the strain increased, the decreasing trend gradually reached a constant value. The decrease was much larger for cold forming than for hot forming. For example, at 500 A/m, the degradation of magnetic flux density with a reduction percentage of 5% at room temperature was about 50%, while that of hot forming at 1200°C was about 10%. Results of this research may provide a reference for the future process design of hot-forged claw poles.

  • loading
  • [1]
    E. Doege and R. Bohnsack, Closed die technologies for hot forging, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 98(2000), No. 2, p. 165. doi: 10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00194-6
    [2]
    A.E. Tekkaya, J.M. Allwood, P.F. Bariani, S. Bruschi, J. Cao, S. Gramlich, P. Groche, G. Hirt, T. Ishikawa, C. Löbbe, J. Lueg-Althoff, M. Merklein, W.Z. Misiolek, M. Pietrzyk, R. Shivpuri, and J. Yanagimoto, Metal forming beyond shaping: Predicting and setting product properties, CIRP Ann., 64(2015), No. 2, p. 629. doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2015.05.001
    [3]
    D. Arumugam, P. Logamani, and S. Karuppiah, Improved performance of integrated generator systems with claw pole alternator for aircraft applications, Energy, 133(2017), p. 808. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2017.05.132
    [4]
    F.J.G. Landgraf and M. Emura, Losses and permeability improvement by stress relieving fully processed electrical steels with previous small deformations, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 242-245(2002), p. 152. doi: 10.1016/S0304-8853(01)01184-2
    [5]
    J.M. Makar and B.K. Tanner, The in situ measurement of the effect of plastic deformation on the magnetic properties of steel: Part I–Hysteresis loops and magnetostriction, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 184(1998), No. 2, p. 193. doi: 10.1016/S0304-8853(97)01129-3
    [6]
    V.E. Iordache, E. Hug, and N. Buiron, Magnetic behaviour versus tensile deformation mechanisms in a non-oriented Fe–(3 wt.%) Si steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 359(2003), No. 1-2, p. 62. doi: 10.1016/S0921-5093(03)00358-7
    [7]
    H. Hauser, R. Grössinger, F. Keplinger, and M. Schönhart, Effect of structural changes on hysteresis properties of steel, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 320(2008), No. 20, p. 983. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2008.04.101
    [8]
    S. Takahashi, S. Kobayashi, H. Kikuchi, and Y. Kamada, Relationship between mechanical and magnetic properties in cold rolled low carbon steel, J. Appl. Phys., 100(2006), No. 11, art. No. 113908.
    [9]
    U. Aydin, P. Rasilo, F. Martin, D. Singh, L. Daniel, A. Belahcen, R. Kouhia, and A. Arkkio, Modeling the effect of multiaxial stress on magnetic hysteresis of electrical steel sheets: A comparison, IEEE Trans. Magn., 53(2017), No. 6, p. 1.
    [10]
    S. Tanhaei, K. Gheisari, and S.R.A Zaree, Effect of cold rolling on the microstructural, magnetic, mechanical, and corrosion properties of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 25(2018), No. 6, p. 630. doi: 10.1007/s12613-018-1610-y
    [11]
    D. Miyagi, K. Miki, M. Nakano, and N. Takahashi, Influence of compressive stress on magnetic properties of laminated electrical steel sheets, IEEE Trans. Magn., 46(2010), No. 2, p. 318. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2009.2033550
    [12]
    M. Kawabe, T. Nomiyama, A. Shiozaki, M. Mimura, N. Takahashi, and M. Nakano, Magnetic properties of particular shape specimen of nonoriented electrical steel sheet under compressive stress in thickness direction, IEEE Trans. Magn., 48(2012), No. 11, p. 3462. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2012.2199965
    [13]
    S. Liu, S. Clenet, T. Coorevits, and J.C. Mipo, Influence of the stator deformation on the behaviour of a claw-pole generator, [in] 17th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, IEEE, Hangzhou, 2014, p. 358.
    [14]
    H.J.M Geijselaers, P. Hilkhuijsen, T.C. Bor, and A.H. Boogaard, Large strain cyclic behavior of metastable austenic stainless steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 631(2015), p. 166. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.02.047
    [15]
    D.P. Bulte and R.A. Langman, Origins of the magnetomechanical effect, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 251(2002), No. 2, p. 229. doi: 10.1016/S0304-8853(02)00588-7
    [16]
    M. Küpferling, C. Appino, V. Basso, G. Bertotti, and F. Fiorillo, Magnetic hysteresis in plastically deformed low-carbon steel laminations, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 316(2007), No. 2, p. 854. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2007.03.120
    [17]
    H.R. Hilzinge and H. Kronmüller, Investigation of bloch-wall-pinning by antiphase boundaries in RCo5-compounds, Phys. Lett. A, 51(1975), No. 1, p. 59. doi: 10.1016/0375-9601(75)90317-5
    [18]
    N. Takahashi, M. Morishita, D. Miyagi, and M. Nakano, Examination of magnetic properties of magnetic materials at high temperature using a ring specimen, IEEE Trans. Magn., 46(2010), No. 2, p. 548. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2009.2033122
    [19]
    S.H. Lee, S.O. Kwon, J.J. Lee, and J.P. Hong, Characteristic analysis of claw-pole machine using improved equivalent magnetic circuit, IEEE Trans. Magn., 45(2009), No. 10, p. 4570. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2009.2023429
    [20]
    S. Takahashi, L. Zhang, S. Kobayashi, Y. Kamada, H. Kikuchi, and K. Ara, Analysis of minor hysteresis loops in plastically deformed low carbon steel, J. Appl. Phys., 98(2005), No. 3, art. No. 033909.
    [21]
    S.G. Hashemi and B. Eghbali, Analysis of the formation conditions and characteristics of interphase and random vanadium precipitation in a low-carbon steel during isothermal heat treatment, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 25(2018), No. 3, p. 339. doi: 10.1007/s12613-018-1577-8
    [22]
    S. Takahashi, J. Echigoya, and Z. Motoki, Magnetization curves of plastically deformed Fe metals and alloys, J. Appl. Phys., 87(2000), No. 2, p. 805. doi: 10.1063/1.371945
    [23]
    M.F. Ashby, The deformation of plastically non-homogeneous materials, Philos. Mag., 21(1970), No. 170, p. 399. doi: 10.1080/14786437008238426
    [24]
    O. Stupakov, J. Pal’a, I. Tomáš, J. Bydžovský, and V. Novák, Investigation of magnetic response to plastic deformation of low-carbon steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 462(2007), No. 1-2, p. 351. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2006.02.475
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(11)  / Tables(3)

    Share Article

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(944) PDF Downloads(39) Cited by()
    Proportional views

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return