Jin-hua Zhou, Yong-feng Shen, and Nan Jia, Strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels: A review, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), No. 3, pp. 335-348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-020-2121-1
Cite this article as:
Jin-hua Zhou, Yong-feng Shen, and Nan Jia, Strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels: A review, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), No. 3, pp. 335-348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-020-2121-1
Invited review

Strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels: A review

+ Author Affiliations
  • Corresponding authors:

    Yong-feng Shen    E-mail: shenyf@smm.neu.edu.cn

    Nan Jia    E-mail: jian@atm.neu.edu.cn

  • Received: 20 April 2020Revised: 11 June 2020Accepted: 17 June 2020Available online: 21 June 2020
  • This review summarizes the strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. High-angle grain boundaries, subgrain boundaries, nano-sized M23C6, and MX carbide precipitates effectively hinder dislocation motion and increase high-temperature strength. M23C6 carbides are easily coarsened under high temperatures, thereby weakening their ability to block dislocations. Creep properties are improved through the reduction of M23C6 carbides. Thus, the loss of strength must be compensated by other strengthening mechanisms. This review also outlines the recent progress in the development of RAFM steels. Oxide dispersion-strengthened steels prevent M23C6 precipitation by reducing C content to increase creep life and introduce a high density of nano-sized oxide precipitates to offset the reduced strength. Severe plastic deformation methods can substantially refine subgrains and MX carbides in the steel. The thermal deformation strengthening of RAFM steels mainly relies on thermo-mechanical treatment to increase the MX carbide and subgrain boundaries. This procedure increases the creep life of TMT(thermo-mechanical treatment) 9Cr–1W–0.06Ta steel by ~20 times compared with those of F82H and Eurofer 97 steels under 550°C/260 MPa.

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