Wei Xiao, Yan-ping Bao, Chao Gu, Min Wang, Yu Liu, Yong-sheng Huang, and Guang-tao Sun, Ultrahigh cycle fatigue fracture mechanism of high-quality bearing steel obtained through different deoxidation methods, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), No. 5, pp. 804-815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-021-2253-y
Cite this article as:
Wei Xiao, Yan-ping Bao, Chao Gu, Min Wang, Yu Liu, Yong-sheng Huang, and Guang-tao Sun, Ultrahigh cycle fatigue fracture mechanism of high-quality bearing steel obtained through different deoxidation methods, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), No. 5, pp. 804-815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-021-2253-y
Research Article

Ultrahigh cycle fatigue fracture mechanism of high-quality bearing steel obtained through different deoxidation methods

+ Author Affiliations
  • Corresponding author:

    Yan-ping Bao    E-mail: baoyp@ustb.edu.cn

  • Received: 30 July 2020Revised: 14 January 2021Accepted: 18 January 2021Available online: 19 January 2021
  • The mechanism of oxide inclusions in fatigue crack initiation in the very-high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime was clarified by subjecting bearing steels deoxidized by Al (Al-deoxidized steel) and Si (Si-deoxidized steel) to ultrasonic tension–compression fatigue tests (stress ratio, R = −1) and analyzing the characteristics of the detected inclusions. Results show that the main types of inclusions in Si- and Al-deoxidized steels are silicate and calcium aluminate, respectively. The content of calcium aluminate inclusions larger than 15 μm in Si-deoxidized steel is lower than that in Al-deoxidized steel, and the difference observed may be attributed to different inclusion generation processes during melting. Despite differences in their cleanliness and total oxygen contents, the Si- and Al-deoxidized steels show similar VHCF lives. The factors causing fatigue failure in these steels reveal distinct differences. Calcium aluminate inclusions are responsible for the cracks in Al-deoxidized steel. By comparison, most fatigue cracks in Si-deoxidized steel are triggered by the inhomogeneity of a steel matrix, which indicates that the damage mechanisms of the steel matrix can be a critical issue for this type of steel. A minor portion of the cracks in Si-deoxidized steel could be attributed to different types of inclusions. The mechanisms of fatigue fracture caused by calcium aluminate and silicate inclusions were further analyzed. Calcium aluminate inclusions first separate from the steel matrix and then trigger crack generation. Silicate inclusions and the steel matrix are closely combined in a fatigue process; thus, these inclusions have mild effects on the fatigue life of bearing steels. Si/Mn deoxidation is an effective method to produce high-quality bearing steel with a long fatigue life and good liquid steel fluidity.
  • loading
  • [1]
    S.M. Wang, Q. Lü, H.L. Wang, and M. Liang, Behavior of non-metallic inclusions in casting slab of BOF bearing steel, J. Northeast. Univ., 27(2006), No. 2, p. 192.
    [2]
    L. Yang and G.G. Cheng, Characteristics of Al2O3, MnS, and TiN inclusions in the remelting process of bearing steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 24(2017), No. 8, p. 869. doi: 10.1007/s12613-017-1472-8
    [3]
    M. Luo and J.G. Wang, Effects of nonmetallic inclusions on initiation and propagation of rolling contact fatigue cracks, Bearing, 2020, No. 6, p. 58.
    [4]
    M. Li, X.C. Wang, J.H. Duan, W. Yang, G. Cheng, L. Wang, L.W. Yang, and L.F. Zhang, Formation and controlling of type-D inclusions in bearing steel, Chin. J. Eng., 40(2018), Suppl. 1, p. 31.
    [5]
    W. Xiao, M. Wang, and Y.P. Bao, The research of low-oxygen control and oxygen behavior during RH process in silicon-deoxidization bearing steel, Metals, 9(2019), No. 8, art. No. 812. doi: 10.3390/met9080812
    [6]
    C. Gu, M. Wang, Y.P. Bao, F.M. Wang, and J.H. Lian, Quantitative analysis of inclusion engineering on the fatigue property improvement of bearing steel, Metals, 9(2019), No. 4, art. No. 476. doi: 10.3390/met9040476
    [7]
    T. Kamiya, K. Mizobe, and K. Kida, Effect of observation position of SUJ2 bar specimens on inclusions distribution, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 307(2018), art. No. 12046. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/307/1/012046
    [8]
    C. Gu, Y.P. Bao, P. Gan, M. Wang, and J.S. He, Effect of main inclusions on crack initiation in bearing steel in the very high cycle fatigue regime, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 25(2018), No. 6, p. 623. doi: 10.1007/s12613-018-1609-4
    [9]
    S.M. Moghaddam and F. Sadeghi, A review of microstructural alterations around nonmetallic inclusions in bearing steel during rolling contact fatigue, Tribol. Trans., 59(2016), No. 6, p. 1142. doi: 10.1080/10402004.2016.1141447
    [10]
    K. Hashimoto, T. Fujimatsu, N. Tsunekage, K. Hiraoka, K. Kida, and E.C. Santos, Effect of inclusion/matrix interface cavities on internal-fracture-type rolling contact fatigue life, Mater. Des., 32(2011), No. 10, p. 4980. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2011.06.056
    [11]
    Y. Neishi, T. Makino, N. Matsui, H. Matsumoto, M. Higashida, and H. Ambai, Influence of the inclusion shape on the rolling contact fatigue life of carburized steels, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 44(2013), No. 5, p. 2131. doi: 10.1007/s11661-012-1344-9
    [12]
    J.L. Guo, L.H. Zhao, Y.P. Bao, S. Gao, and M. Wang, Carbon and oxygen behavior in the RH degasser with carbon powder addition, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 26(2019), No. 6, p. 681. doi: 10.1007/s12613-019-1782-0
    [13]
    X.F. Cai, Y.P. Bao, L. Lin, and C. Gu, Effect of Al content on the evolution of non-metallic inclusions in Si–Mn deoxidized steel, Steel Res. Int., 87(2016), No. 9, p. 1168. doi: 10.1002/srin.201500305
    [14]
    S.H. Chen, M. Jiang, X.F. He, and X.H. Wang, Top slag refining for inclusion composition transform control in tire cord steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 19(2012), No. 6, p. 490. doi: 10.1007/s12613-012-0585-3
    [15]
    Y. Li, C.Y. Chen, G.Q. Qin, Z.H. Jiang, M. Sun, and K. Chen, Influence of crucible material on inclusions in 95Cr saw-wire steel deoxidized by Si–Mn, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 27(2020), No. 8, p. 1083. doi: 10.1007/s12613-019-1957-8
    [16]
    M. Shimamoto, E. Tamura, A. Owaki, and A. Matsugasako, Influence of modified oxide inclusions on initiation of rolling contact fatigue cracks in bearing steel, Kobe Steel Eng. Rep., 69(2019), No. 2, p. 90.
    [17]
    M. Shimamoto, T. Sugimura, S. Kimura, A. Owaki, M. Kaizuka, and Y. Shindo, Improvement of the rolling contact fatigue resistance in bearing steels by adjusting the composition of oxide inclusions, [in] J.M. Beswick, ed., Bearing Steel Technologies: 10th Volume, Advances in Steel Technologies for Rolling Bearings, STP1580, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, p. 173.
    [18]
    C. Gu, Y.P. Bao, P. Gan, J.H. Lian, and S. Münstermann, An experimental study on the impact of deoxidation methods on the fatigue properties of bearing steels, Steel Res. Int., 89(2018), No. 9, art. No. 1800129. doi: 10.1002/srin.201800129
    [19]
    H.Q. Xue, Investigation on Fatigue Behavior of Materials in Very High Cycle Regime under Vibratory Loading [Dissertation], Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, 2006.
    [20]
    T. Wu, J. Ni, and C. Bathias, An automatic ultrasonic fatigue testing system for studying low crack growth at room and high temperatures, [in] C. Amzallag, ed., Automation in Fatigue and Fracture: Testing and Analysis, STP1231, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1994, p. 598.
    [21]
    L.D. Roth, Ultrasonic fatigue testing, [in] H. Kuhn and D. Medlin, eds., Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, ASM Handbook, Vol. 8, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2000, p. 1659.
    [22]
    W.P. Mason and H. Baerwald, Piezoelectric crystals and their applications to ultrasonics, Phys. Today, 4(1951), No. 5, p. 23. doi: 10.1063/1.3067231
    [23]
    S. Kimura, Y. Nabeshima, K. Nakajima, and S. Mizoguchi, Behavior of nonmetallic inclusions in front of the solid–liquid interface in low-carbon steels, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 31(2000), No. 5, p. 1013. doi: 10.1007/s11663-000-0077-0
    [24]
    S. Kimura, K. Nakajima, and S. Mizoguchi, Behavior of alumina–magnesia complex inclusions and magnesia inclusions on the surface of molten low-carbon steels, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 32(2001), No. 1, p. 79. doi: 10.1007/s11663-001-0010-1
    [25]
    H.B. Yin, H. Shibata, T. Emi, and M. Suzuki, Characteristics of agglomeration of various inclusion particles on molten steel surface, ISIJ Int., 37(1997), No. 10, p. 946. doi: 10.2355/isijinternational.37.946
    [26]
    H.B. Yin, H. Shibata, T. Emi, and M. Suzuki, "In-situ" observation of collision, agglomeration and cluster formation of alumina inclusion particles on steel melts, ISIJ Int., 37(1997), No. 10, p. 936. doi: 10.2355/isijinternational.37.936
    [27]
    C.J. Xuan, A.V. Karasev, P.G. Jönsson, and K. Nakajima, Attraction force estimations of Al2O3 particle agglomerations in the melt, Steel Res. Int., 88(2017), No. 2, art. No. 1600090. doi: 10.1002/srin.201600090
    [28]
    L.Z. Wang, Study on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Al Killed Steel [Dissertation], University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 2017.
    [29]
    K. Raiber, P. Hammerschmid, and D. Janke, Experimental studies on Al2O3 inclusion removal from steel melts using ceramic filters, ISIJ Int., 35(1995), No. 4, p. 380. doi: 10.2355/isijinternational.35.380
    [30]
    K. Nogi and K. Ogino, Role of interfacial phenomena in deoxidation process of molten iron, Can. Metall. Q., 22(1983), No. 1, p. 19. doi: 10.1179/cmq.1983.22.1.19
    [31]
    N. Shinozaki, N. Echida, K. Mukai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Tanaka, Wettability of Al2O3–MgO, ZrO2–CaO, Al2O3–CaO substrates with molten iron, Tetsu-to-Hagané, 80(1994), No. 10, p. 748.
    [32]
    Y. Murakami and H. Usuki, Quantitative evaluation of effects of non-metallic inclusions on fatigue strength of high strength steels. II: Fatigue limit evaluation based on statistics for extreme values of inclusion size, Int. J. Fatigue, 11(1989), No. 5, p. 299. doi: 10.1016/0142-1123(89)90055-8
    [33]
    C. Gu, J.H. Lian, Y.P. Bao, Q.G. Xie, and S. Münstermann, Microstructure-based fatigue modelling with residual stresses: Prediction of the fatigue life for various inclusion sizes, Int. J. Fatigue, 129(2019), art. No. 105158. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.06.018
    [34]
    C. Gu, J.H. Lian, Y.P. Bao, and S. Münstermann, Microstructure-based fatigue modelling with residual stresses: Prediction of the microcrack initiation around inclusions, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 751(2019), p. 133. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.02.058
    [35]
    D. Brooksbank and K.W. Andrews, Tessellated stresses associated with some inclusions in steel, J. Iron Steel Inst., 207(1969), p. 474.
    [36]
    Y. Wang, The relationship between thermal expansion coefficient and chemical composition of glass, Bull. Chin. Ceram. Soc., 1(1982), No. 3, p. 35.
    [37]
    D. Brooksbank and K.W. Andrews, Thermal expansion of some inclusions found in steels and relation to tessellated stresses, J. Iron Steel Inst., 206(1969), p. 595.
    [38]
    K. Yang, B. Yang, X.Y. Xu, C. Hoover, M.M. Smedskjaer, and M. Bauchy, Prediction of the Young’s modulus of silicate glasses by topological constraint theory, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 514(2019), p. 15. doi: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2019.03.033
    [39]
    Z.Y. Deng and M.Y. Zhu, Evolution mechanism of non-metallic inclusions in Al-killed alloyed steel during secondary refining process, ISIJ Int., 53(2013), No. 3, p. 450. doi: 10.2355/isijinternational.53.450
    [40]
    Y. Ma, T. Pan, B. Jiang, Y.H. Cui, S. Hang, and Y. Peng, Study of the effect of sulfur contents on fracture toughness of railway wheel steels for high speed train, Acta Metall. Sin., 47(2011), No. 8, p. 978.
    [41]
    C. Gu, J.H. Lian, Y.P. Bao, W. Xiao, and S. Münstermann, Numerical study of the effect of inclusions on the residual stress distribution in high-strength martensitic steels during cooling, Appl. Sci., 9(2019), No. 3, art. No. 455. doi: 10.3390/app9030455
    [42]
    C. Gu, W.Q. Liu, J.H. Lian, and Y.P. Bao, In-depth analysis of the fatigue mechanism induced by inclusions for high-strength bearing steels, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), 5, p. 826. doi: 10.1007/s12613-020-2223-9
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(13)  / Tables(5)

    Share Article

    Article Metrics

    Article views (2458) PDF downloads(30) Cited by()
    Proportional views

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return